Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/195

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j. Feminine stems of this class are occasionally (but the case is much less frequent than its opposite: above, c) found with the nasal: thus, yántī (AV., once), undántī (ÇB.; but probably from the secondary á-stem), gṛhṇantī (S.), and, in the epics and later, such forms as bruvantī, rudantī, cinvantī, kurvantī, jānantī, muṣṇantī.

450. A few words are participial in form and inflection, though not in meaning. Thus:

a. bṛhánt (often written vṛhánt) great; it is inflected like a participle (with bṛhatī́ and bṛhánti in du. and pl. neut.).

b. mahánt great; inflected like a participle, but with the irregularity that the a of the ending is lengthened in the strong forms: thus, mahā́n, mahā́ntam; mahā́ntāu (neut. mahatī́); mahā́ntas, mahā́nti: instr. mahatā́ etc.

c. pṛ́ṣant speckled, and (in Veda only) rúçant shining.

d. jágat moveable, lively (in the later language, as neuter noun, world), a reduplicated formation from √gam go; its nom. etc. neut. pl. is allowed by the grammarians to be only jáganti.

e. ṛhánt small (only once, in RV., ṛhaté).

f. All these form their feminine in atī only: thus, bṛhatī́, mahatī́, pṛ́ṣatī and rúçatī (contrary to the rule for participles), jágatī.

g. For dánt tooth, which is perhaps of participial origin, see above, 396.

451. The pronominal adjectives íyant and kíyant are inflected like adjectives in mant and vant, having (452) íyān and kíyān as nom. masc. sing., íyatī and kíyatī as nom. etc. du. neut. and as feminine stems, and íyanti and kíyanti as nom. etc. plur. neut.

a. But the neut. pl. íyanti and the loc. sing. (?) kíyāti are found in RV.

2. Possessives in mant or vant.

452. The adjectives formed by these two suffixes are inflected precisely alike, and very nearly like the participles in अन्त् ant. From the latter they differ only by lengthening अ a in the nom. sing. masc.

a. The voc. sing. is in an, like that of the participle (in the later language, namely: for that of the oldest, see below, 454 b). The neut. nom. etc. are in the dual only atī (or átī), and in the plural anti (or ánti).

b. The feminine is always made from the weak stem: thus, matī, vatī (or mátī, vátī). One or two cases of instead of ī are met with: thus, antárvatnī (B. and later), patívatnī (C.).