Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/208
b. Or, the number to be added is compounded with adhika redundant, and the compound is either made to qualify the other number or is further compounded with it: thus, pañcādhikaṁ çatam or pañcādhikaçatam 105. Of course, ūna deficient (as also other words equivalent to ūna or adhika) may be used in the same way: thus, pañconaṁ çatam 95, ṣaṣṭiḥ pañcavarjitā 55; çatam abhyadhikaṁ ṣaṣṭitaḥ 160.
c. Syntactical combinations are made at convenience: for example, dáça çatáṁ ca 110; çatám ékaṁ ca 101.
479. Another usual method (beginning in the Brāhmaṇas) of forming the odd numbers above 100 is to qualify the larger number by an adjective derived from the smaller, and identical with the briefer ordinal (below, 487): thus, dvādaçáṁ çatám, 112 (lit'ly a hundred of a 12-sort, or characterised by 12); catuçcatvāriṅçáṁ çatám 144; ṣaṭṣaṣṭáṁ çatám 166.
480. To multiply one number by another, among the higher or the lower denominations, the simplest and least ambiguous method is to make of the multiplied number a dual or plural, qualified by the other as any ordinary noun would be; and this method is a common one in all ages of the language. For example: páñca pañcāçátas five fifties (250); náva navatáyas nine nineties (810); açītíbhis tisṛ́bhis with three eighties (240); páñca çatā́ni five hundreds; trī́ṇi sahásrāṇi three thousands; ṣaṣṭíṁ sahásrāṇi 60,000; daça ca sahasrāṇy aṣṭāu ca çatāni 10,800: and, combined with addition, trī́ṇi çatā́ni tráyastriṅçataṁ ca 333; sahasre dve pañconaṁ çatam eva ca 2095.
a. In an exceptional case or two, the ordinal form appears to take the place of the cardinal as multiplicand in a like combination: thus, ṣaṭtriṅçā́ṅç ca catúraḥ (RV.) 36x4 (lit. four of the thirty-six kind); trī́ṅr ekādaçā́n (RV.) or traya ekādaçāsaḥ (ÇÇS. viii. 21. 1) 11x3.
b. By a peculiar and wholly illogical construction, such a combination as trīṇi ṣaṣṭiçatāni, which ought to signify 480 (3x100+60), is repeatedly used in the Brāhmaṇas to mean 360 (3x100+60); so also dvé catustriṅçé çaté 234 (not 268); dvāṣaṣṭāni trīṇi çatāni 362; and other like cases. And even R. has trayaḥ çataçatārdhāḥ 350.
481. But the two factors, multiplier and multiplied, are also, and in later usage more generally, combined into a compound (accented on the final); and this is then treated as an adjective, qualifying the numbered noun; or else its neuter or feminine (in ī) singular is used substantively: thus, daçaçatā́s 1000; ṣaṭçatāiḥ padātibhiḥ (MBh.) with 600 foot-soldiers; tráyastriṅçat triçatā́ḥ ṣaṭsahasrāḥ (AV.) 6333; dviçatám or dviçatī́ 200; aṣṭādaçaçatī 1800.
a. In the usual absence of accentuation, there arises sometimes a question as to how a compound number shall be understood: whether aṣṭaçatam, for example, is aṣṭáçatam 108 or aṣṭaçatám 800, and the like.