Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/223

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káti, kathā́, kathám, kadā́, katará, katamá, kárhi; kíyant, kīdṛ́ç; kútas, kútra, kúha, kvà, kucará, kukarman, kumantrin, etc.

506. Various forms of this pronoun, as kad, kim, and ku (and, rarely, ko), at the beginning of compounds, have passed from an interrogative meaning, through an exclamatory, to the value of prefixes signifying an unusual quality — either something admirable, or, oftener, something contemptible. This use begins in the Veda, but becomes much more common in later time.

507. The interrogative pronoun, as in other languages, turns readily in its independent use also to an exclamatory meaning. Moreover, it is by various added particles converted to an indefinite meaning: thus, by ca, caná, cid, ápi, vā, either alone or with the relative ya (below, 511) prefixed: thus, káç caná any one; ná kó ‘pi not any one; yā́ni kā́ni cit whatsoever; yatamát katamác ca whatever one. Occasionally, the interrogative by itself acquires a similar value.

Relative Pronoun.

508. The root of the relative pronoun is य ya, which from the earliest period of the language has lost all trace of the demonstrative meaning originally (doubtless) belonging to it, and is used as relative only.

509. It is inflected with entire regularity according to the usual pronominal declension: thus,


Singular. Dual. Plural.
m. n. f. m. n. f. m. n. f.
N. यस्
yás
यत्
yát
या
yā́
यौ
yāú
ये
ये
ये
यानि
yā́ni
यास्
yā́s
A. याम्
yā́m
यत्
yát
याम्
yā́m
यान्
yā́n
यानि
yā́ni
यास्
yā́s
I. येन
yéna
यया
yáyā
याभ्याम्
yā́bhyām
यैस्
yāís
याभिस्
yā́bhis
D. यस्मै
yásmāi
यस्यै
yásyāi
येभ्यस्
yébhyas
याभ्यस्
yā́bhyas
etc. etc. etc. etc. etc.

a. The Veda shows its usual variations of these forms: yā́ for yāú and for yā́ni, and yébhis for yāís; yós for yáyos also occurs once; yénā, with prolonged final, is in RV. twice as common as yéna. Reso-