Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/224

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lutions occur in yā́bhias, and yéṣaam and yā́saam. The conjunction yā́t is an ablative form according to the ordinary declension.

510. The use of yát as representative stem begins very early: we have yátkāma in the Veda, and yatkārín, yaddevatyà in the Brāhmaṇa; later it grows more general. From the proper root come also a considerable series of derivatives: yátas, yáti, yátra, yáthā, yádā, yádi, yárhi, yā́vant, yatará, yatamá; and the compound yādṛ́ç.

511. The combination of ya with ka to make an indefinite pronoun has been noticed above (507). Its own repetition — as yád-yat — gives it sometimes a like meaning, won through the distributive.

512. One or two marked peculiarities in the Sanskrit use of the relative may be here briefly noticed:

a. A very decided preference for putting the relative clause before that to which it relates: thus, yáḥ sunvatáḥ sákhā tásmā índrāya gāyata (RV.) who is the friend of the soma-presser, to that Indra sing ye; yáṁ yajñám paribhū́r ási sá íd devéṣu gacchati (RV.) what offering thou protectest, that in truth goeth to the gods; yé triṣaptā́ḥ pariyánti bálā téṣāṁ dadhātu me (AV.) what thrice seven go about, their strength may he assign to me; asāú yó adharā́d gṛhás tátra santv arāyyàḥ (AV.) what house is yonder in the depth, there, let the witches be; sahá yán me ásti téna (TB.) along with that which is mine; haṅsānāṃ vacanaṁ yat tu tan māṁ dahati (MBh.) but what the words of the swans were, that burns me; sarvasya locanaṁ çāstraṁ yasya nā ’sty andha eva saḥ (H.) who does not possess learning, the eye of everything, blind indeed is he. The other arrangement, though frequent enough, is notably less usual.

b. A frequent conversion of the subject or object of a verb by an added relative into a substantive clause: thus, mé ’mám prā́ ”pat pāúruṣeyo vadhó yáḥ (AV.) may there not reach him a human deadly weapon (lit'ly, what is such a weapon); pári ṇo pāhi yád dhánam (AV.) protect of us what wealth [there is]; apāmārgó ‘pa mārṣṭu kṣetriyáṃ çapáthaç ca yáh (AV.) may the cleansing plant cleanse away the disease and the curse; puṣkareṇa hṛtaṃ rājyaṁ yac cā ’nyad vasu kiṁcana (MBh.) by Pushkara was taken away the kingdom and whatever other property [there was].

Other Pronouns: Emphatic, Indefinite.

513. a. The isolated and uninflected pronominal word स्वयम् svayam (from the root sva) signifies self, own self. By its form it appears to be a nom. sing., and it is often-