Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/274

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first persons (borrowed subjunctives), and in the 3d sing. act.: thus, (in the older language) bíbharāṇi etc., bíbhartu, bíbharāi etc.

654. Vedic irregularities of inflection are: 1. the occasional use of strong forms in 2d persons: thus, yuyodhí, çiçādhi (beside çiçīhí); yuyotam (beside yuyutám); íyarta, dádāta and dadātana, dádhāta and dádhātana (see below, 668), pipartana, juhóta and juhótana, yuyota and yuyotana; rarāsva (666); 2. the use of dhi instead of hi after a vowel (only in the two instances just quoted); 3. the ending tana in 2d pl. act.: namely, besides those just given, in jigātana, dhattana, mamáttana, vivaktana, didiṣṭana, bibhītana, jujuṣṭana, juhutana, vavṛttana: the cases are proportionally much more numerous in this than in any other class; 4. the ending tāt in 2d sing. act., in dattāt, dhattā́t, pipṛtāt, jahītāt.

5. Present Participle.

655. As elsewhere, the active participle-stem may be made mechanically from the 3d pl. indic. by dropping इ i: thus, जुह्वत् júhvat, बिभ्रत् bíbhrat. In inflection, it has no distinction of strong and weak forms (444). The feminine stem ends in अती atī. The middle participles are regularly made: thus, जुह्वान júhvāna, बिभ्राण bíbhrāṇa.

a. RV. shows an irregular accent in pipāná (√ drink).

6. Imperfect.

656. As already pointed out, the 3d pl. act. of this class takes the ending उस् us, and a final radical vowel has guṇa before it. The strong forms are, as in present indicative, the three singular active persons.

657. Examples of inflection:

active. middle.
s. d. p. s. d. p.
1 अजुहवम्
ájuhavam
अजुहुव
ájuhuva
अजुहुम
ájuhuma
अजुह्वि
ájuhvi
अजुहुवहि
ájuhuvahi
अजुहुमहि
ájuhumahi
2 अजुहोस्
ájuhos
अजुहुतम्
ájuhutam
अजुहुत
ájuhuta
अजुहुथास्
ájuhuthās
अजुह्वाथाम्
ájuhvāthām
अजुहुध्वम्
ájuhudhvam
3 अजुहोत्
ájuhot
अजुहुताम्
ájuhutām
अजुहवुस्
ájuhavus
अजुहुत
ájuhuta
अजुह्वाताम्
ájuhvātām
अजुह्वत
ájuhvata