Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/281

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690. There is no occurrence, so far as noted, of the ending tāt in verbs of this class. The Veda has, as usual, sometimes strong forms, and sometimes the ending tana, in the 2d pl. act.: thus, unátta, yunákta, anaktana, pinaṣṭana.

5. Present Participle.

691. The participles are made in this class as in the preceding ones: thus, act. युञ्जन्त् yuñjánt (fem. युञ्जती yuñjatī́); mid. युञ्जान yuñjāná (but RV. has índhāna).

6. Imperfect.

692. The example of the regular inflection of this tense needs no introduction:

active. middle.
s. d. p. s. d. p.
1 अयुनजम्
áyunajam
अयुञ्ज्व
áyuñjva
अयुञ्ज्म
áyuñjma
अयुञ्जि
áyuñji
अयुञ्ज्वहि
áyuñjvahi
अयुञ्ज्महि
áyuñjmahi
2 अयुनक्
áyunak
अयुङ्क्तम्
áyun̄ktam
अयुङ्क्त
áyun̄kta
अयुङ्क्थास्
áyun̄kthās
अयुञ्जाथाम्
áyuñjāthām
अयुङ्ग्ध्वम्
áyun̄gdhvam
3 अयुनक्
áyunak
अयुङ्क्ताम्
áyun̄ktām
अयुञ्जन्
áyuñjan
अयुङ्क्त
áyun̄kta
अयुञ्जाताम्
áyuñjātām
अयुञ्जत
áyuñjata

a. The endings s and t are necessarily lost in the nasal class throughout in 2d and 3d sing. act., unless saved at the expense of the final radical consonant: which is a case of very rare occurrence (the only quotable examples were given at 555 a).

693. The Veda shows no irregularities in this tense. Occurrences of augmentless forms are found, especially in 2d and 3d sing. act., showing an accent like that of the present: for example, bhinát, pṛṇák, vṛṇák, piṇák, riṇák.

a. The 1st sing. act. atṛṇam and acchinam (for atṛṇadam and acchinadam) were noted above, at 555 a.

694. The roots of this class number about thirty, more than half of them being found only in the earlier language; no new ones make their first appearance later. Three of them, añj and bhañj and hiṅs, carry their nasal also into other tense-systems than the present. Two, ṛdh and ubh, make present-systems also of other classes having a nasal in the class-sign: thus, ṛdhnoti (nu-class) and ubhnāti (-class).