Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/371

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while piç has both forms, and mṛç takes ita only late; iṣ send, īṣ, kuṣ, tṛṣ, tviṣ, pruṣ, miṣ, rūṣ, heṣ, hreṣ, also muṣ except late, while dhṛṣ, ruṣ, and hṛṣ show both forms; ās, bhas, bhās, ras, las, vas clothe, has, also as throw occasionally, while kas, gras, yas, vas shine, vas dwell, çās (with çiṣṭá and çāsta), çvas, and hras make both forms; īh, grah (gṛhītá), jah (secondary form of ), mah, rah, and occasionally ūh remove, while gāh has both forms.

c. Of roots ending in vowels, only çī lie, which makes çayita (with guṇa of root, as elsewhere: 629).

d. In general, a root maintains its full form before ita; but there are a few exceptions: thus, gṛbhītá and gṛhītá (the root being reckoned as grabh and grah: see 729), uditá (also vadita in the later language), uṣita (√vas shine; beside uṣṭá), uṣita (√vas dwell: also sporadically vasita and uṣṭa), ukṣitá (√vaká increase), çṛthitá (√çrath). From √mṛj are made both mṛjita and mārjita (with strengthening as in present and elsewhere: 627), beside mṛṣṭá.

e. Instead of i, long ī is taken in gṛbhītá and gṛhītá.

957. The suffix न (always without auxiliary इ i) is taken instead of त by a number of roots (about seventy). Thus:

a. Certain roots in ā: thus, kṣā, glā, drā run, drā sleep, (also drita?), mlā (also mlātá), blow (also vāta), çyā (also çīná), styā, hā leave (also hīná and hāta), go forth; and divide makes diná (also dita and -tta). Further, certain roots in i- and u-vowels: thus, kṣi destroy (kṣīṇa; also kṣitá), ḍī, pī, lī cling, vlī, çī or çyā coagulate (beside çyāna and çīta), hrī (beside hrīta); burn (also duta), lū, çū; and dīv lament makes dyūna (compare 765).

b. Roots in , which before the suffix becomes īr or ūr: the forms are, arṇa (late; beside ṛtá), kīrṇa (√kṛ scatter), gīrṇá (√gṛ swallow), jīrṇá and jūrṇá (√jṛ waste away), tīrṇá and tūrṇa (also tūrtá), dīrṇá (√dṛ pierce: also dṛta), pūrṇá (√pṛ fill: also pūrtá and pṛta), mūrṇá (√mṛ crush), çīrṇá (√çṛ crush: also çīrta and çūrtá?), stīrṇá (also stṛta). Of like character with these are īrṇá from √īr, cīrṇa (beside carita) from √car, gūrṇa (beside gūrtá) from √gur, a secondary form of gṛ, and cūrṇa (beside carvita) from √carv, which is also plainly a secondary root.

c. A few roots ending in j (which becomes g before the suffix, against the usual rule of internal combination: 216 f): thus, bhagna (√bhañj), bhugna (√bhuj bend), magná (√majj), rugṇá, vigna (beside vikta). Further, two or three ending in c (similarly treated): thus, akná (√ac or añc: also acita and añcita), vṛkná (√vraçc), and apparently -pṛgṇa (RV., once: with doubly irregular change of root-final, from √pṛc). And one root in g, lagna.