Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/376
c. Of roots making participles of both forms, an infinitive stem in tu only is quotable for kṣip, kṣubh, tap, tyaj, mṛç, lubh, vas shine, çak, stabh; only in itu for gāh, carv, jap, mad, yat, van, çaṅs, çvas; in both for as throw, ūh remove, gup, car, mṛj (mā̆rṣṭu, mārjitu), lap, vas dwell, çap, çās.
d. Also in a number of other cases (besides those already noticed) an infinitive stem is made both with and without i. Thus, in addition to the more regular form, a stem in itu is occasionally met with from roots aç attain, iṣ seek, bandh, bhaj, yaj (ījitum), rudh obstruct, ruh, vṛṣ, sad (sīditum), sah, han, hṛ; and one in tu from roots ās, bhāṣ, vid know. Both forms occur also from certain am-roots, namely nam, yam, ram, and, with ā before tu as in the pple, kram and bhram (kṣam has only kṣaṁtu, against the analogy of kṣāṁta); further, from certain roots in variable ṛ, namely tṛ (tartu, tarī̆tu), vṛ cover (vártu, varī̆tu), and stṛ (stártu, staritu, stárītu) (but from çṛ crush occur only çárītu, çaritu, and from vṛ choose only varītu; while gṛ swallow and pṛ fill make their infinitive from other root-forms, namely giritum, pūritum); further, from a few vowel-roots, namely nī, cyu, sū (sū́tu); and finally from kṛṣ, nṛt, çuc.
e. Against the analogy of the participle, infinitive-stems in itu after a final consonant are made from the roots av, kṣan, khan and jan (the pples coming from khā and jā), guh, jabh, tam, dīv play and dīv lament (both devitu), majj, vṛt, vṛdh, sṛp; and after a final vowel, from roots in ū, namely pū, bhū, sū (also sūtu), and from çri and çvi; as to roots in variable ṛ, see just above, d.
f. As the infinitive is made from the (accented and) strengthened root, so it naturally has, as a rule, the stronger or fuller root-form where a weaker or contracted form is taken by the participle (and gerund in tvā́): e. g. váktu against uktá (and uktvā́), yáṣṭu against iṣṭá (and iṣṭvā́), banddhum against baddhá (and baddhvā́), and so on. Deserving special notice are gātu (√gā sing) against gītá, and dhā́tu (√dhā suck) against dhītá; and so from dā give and hā leave are made only dā́tu and hātu; but dhā put, mā measure, and sthā add to the regular dhātu, mātu, sthātu the late forms -dhitu, -mitu, -sthitu; and sā or si has sātu, sétu, and -situ; vā weave (pple utá) has both vā́tu and ótu; hū or hvā has havītu, hváyitu, and hvātu. The root vyadh makes its only quotable infinitive, veddhum, from its vidh-form; from sañj or saj occur both san̄ktu and saktu. The anomalous epic forms ījitum (√yaj) and sīditum (√sad), were mentioned above. The root grab makes gráhītum.
g. In the later language, the infinitive-stem forms possessive compounds with kāma and manas (especially the former): e. g. svaptukāma having the wish to sleep, yaṣṭukāma desirous of sacrificing, vaktumanas minded to speak.
h. In very rare instances, dative infinitives in tave or tavāi are