Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/450

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may in the main be viewed as modifications or specializations of these two.

a. Even the words indicating recipience of action, the passive participles, are, as their use also as neuter or reflexive shows, only notably modified words of agency. The gerundives are, as was pointed out above (961 ff.), secondary derivatives, originally indicating only concerned with the action.

1146. But these two classes, in the processes of formation, are not held sharply apart. There is hardly a suffix by which action-nouns are formed which does not also make agent-nouns or adjectives; although there are not a few by which are made only the latter. In treating them in detail below, we will first take up the suffixes by which derivatives of both classes are made, and then those forming only agent-nouns.

a. To facilitate the finding of the different suffixes is given the following list of them, in their order as treated, with references to paragraphs:

1147 yu 1165 in 1183
a 1148 ma 1166 īyas, iṣṭha 1184
ā 1149 mi 1167 tra 1185
ana 1150 man 1168 ka 1186
as 1151 van 1169 ya 1187
tas, nas, sas 1152 vana, -ni, -nu 1170 ra 1188
is 1153 vara 1171 la 1189
us 1154 ant 1172 va 1190
i 1155 vāṅs 1173 ri 1191
ī 1156 māna 1174 ru 1192
ti 1157 āna 1175 vi 1193
ni 1158 ta 1176 snu 1194
ani 1159 na, ina, una 1177 sna 1195
an 1160 u 1178 tnu 1196
tu 1161 ū 1179 sa 1197
nu 1162 uka 1180 asi 1198
tha 1163 aka 1181 abha 1199
thu 1164 tṛ or tar 1182 sundries 1200–1

1147. Stems without suffix; Root-words. These words and their uses have been already pretty fully considered above (323, 348 ff., 383 ff., 400, 401).

a. They are used especially (in the later language, almost solely) as finals of compounds, and have both fundamental values, as action-nouns (frequently as infinitives: 971), and as agent-nouns and adjectives (often governing an accusative: 271 e). As action-nouns, they are chiefly feminines (384; in many instances, however, they do not occur in situations that determine the gender).