Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/454
b. Examples are īçā́ lordship, krīdā́ play, dayā́ pity, nindā́ reproach, çan̄kā́ doubt, hiṅsā injury, kṣamā patience, kṣudhā hunger, bhāṣā speech, sevā service, spṛhā eagerness.
c. But especially, such nouns in ā are made in large numbers, and with perfect freedom, from secondary conjugation-stems.
d. Thus, especially from desiderative stems, as jigīṣā́, bhikṣā́, vīrtsā́, bībhatsā́, etc. (see 1038); in the formation of periphrastic perfects, especially from causative stems, but also from desiderative and intensive, and even from primary present-stems (1071 c–f); from denominative stems, in the older language, as açvayā́, sukratūyā́, apasyā́, uruṣyā́, asūyā́, açanayā́, jīvanasyā́, etc., and quite rarely in the later, as mṛgayā.
e. The only example from a reduplicated stem is the late paspaçā; for sūṣā́, ján̄ghā, and jihvā́, which have a reduplicated aspect, are of doubtful origin. From present-stems come icchā and probably -ṛcchā.
1150. अन ana. With this suffix (as with अ a) are formed innumerable derivatives, of both the principal classes of meaning, and with not infrequent specializations. The root has oftenest guṇa-strengthening, but not seldom vṛddhi instead; and in a few cases it remains unstrengthened. Derivatives of this formation are frequent from roots with prefixes, and also in composition with other elements.
a. The normal and greatly prevalent accent is upon the root-syllable, without regard to the difference of meaning; but cases occur of accented final, and a few of accented penult. The action-nouns are in general of the neuter gender. The feminine of adjectives is made either in ā or in ī (for details, see below). And a few feminine action-nouns in anā and anī occur, which may be ranked as belonging to this suffix.
1. b. With strengthened and accented root-syllable. Under this head fall, as above indicated, the great mass of forms.
c. With guṇa-strengthening: examples of action-nouns are sádana seat, rákṣaṇa protection, danā́ giving, cáyana collection, védana property, hávana call, bhójana enjoyment, káraṇa deed, várdhana increase; — of agent-nouns, tápana burning, cétana visible, códana impelling.
d. With vṛddhi-strengthening (only in such circumstances that ā remains as vowel of the radical syllable): examples are -cā́tana, nā́çana, mā́dana, -vā́cana, -vā́sana, -vā́hana, sā́dana, -spā́çana, svā́dana, -ā́yana, -yā́vana, -srāvaṇa, -pā́raṇa.
e. From roots with prefixes, the derivatives of this formation are very numerous, being exceeded in frequency only by those made with the