Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/519
a. A principal exception with regard to accent is páti master, lord (and its feminine pátnī), compounds with which usually retain the accent of the prior member: thus, prajā́pati, vásupati, átithipati, gópati, gṛhápatnī, etc. etc. (compare the verbal nouns in ti, below, 1274). But in a few words páti retains its own accent: thus, viçpáti, rayipáti, paçupáti, vasupátnī, etc.; and the more general rule is followed in apsarāpatí and vrājapatí (AV.), and nadīpatí (VS.), citpatí (MS.; elsewhere citpáti).
b. Other exceptions are sporadic only: for example, janarā́jan, devavárman, hiraṇyatéjas, pṛtanāháva, godhū́ma and çakadhū́ma (but dhūmá); vācā́stena.
c. The appearance of a case-form in such compounds is rare: examples are dívodasa, vācā́stena, uccāíḥçravas, uccāírghoṣa, dūrébhās (the three last in possessive application).
d. A number of compounds are accented on both members: thus, çácīpáti, sádaspáti, bṛ́haspáti, vánaspáti, ráthaspáti, jā́spáti (also jā́spati), nárāçaṅsa, tánūnáptṛ, tánūnápāt (tanū́ as independent word), çúnaḥçépa. And ÇB. has a long list of metronymics having the anomalous accentuation kāútsīpútra, gā́rgīpútra, etc.
1268. The compounds having an ordinary adjective as final member are (as already noticed) comparatively few.
a. So far as can be gathered from the scanty examples occurring in the older language, they retain the accent of the prior member: thus, gáviṣṭhira (AV. gavíṣṭhira), tanū́çubhra, máderaghu, yajñádhira, sā́mavipra, tilámiçra (but tíla); but kṛṣṭapacyá ripening in cultivated soil.
1269. The adjective dependent compounds having as final member the bare root — or, if it end in a short vowel, generally with an added t — are very numerous in all periods of the language, as has been already repeatedly noticed (thus, 383 f–h, 1147). They are accented on the root.
a. In a very few instances, the accent of words having apparently or conjecturally this origin is otherwise laid: thus, áṅsatra, ánarviç, svā́vṛj, pratyákṣadṛç, púraṁdhi, óṣadhi, áramiṣ, uçádagh, vatsápa, ábda.
b. Before a final root-stem appears not very seldom a case-form: for example, pataṁgá, girāvṛ́dh, dhiyājúr, akṣṇayādrúh, hṛdispṛ́ç, divispṛ́ç, vanesáh, diviṣád, an̄geṣṭhā́, hṛsvás, pṛtsutúr, apsujá.
C. The root-stem has sometimes a middle or passive value: for example, manoyúj yoked (yoking themselves) by the will, hṛdayāvídh pierced to the heart, manuja born of Manu.
1270. Compounds made with verbal derivatives in a, both of action and of agency, are numerous, and take the accent usually on their final syllable (as in the case of compounds with verbal prefixes: 1148 m).