Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/521
sarásammita commensurate with the year. AV. has the anomalous apsúsaṁçita quickened by the waters.
b. A number of exceptions occur, in which the final syllable of the compound has the accent: for example, agnitaptá, indrotá, pitṛvittá, rathakrītá, agnidagdhá (beside agnídagdha), kaviçastá (beside kavíçasta), kavipraçastá.
c. One or two special usages may be noticed. The participle gata, gone to, as final of a compound, is used in a loose way in the later language to express relation of various kinds: thus, jagatīgata existing in the world, tvadgata belonging to thee, sakhīgata relating to a friend, citragata in a picture, putragataṁ sneham affection toward a son, etc. The participle bhūta been, become is used in composition with a noun as hardly more than a grammatical device to give it an adjective form: thus, idaṁ tamobhūtam this creation, being darkness (existing in the condition of darkness); tāṁ ratnabhūtaṁ lokasya her, being the pearl of the world; kṣetrabhūtā smṛtā nārī bījabhūtah smrtaḥ pumān a woman is regarded as a field; a man, as seed; and so on.
d. The other participles only seldom occur as finals of compounds: thus, prāsakārmukabibhrat bearing javelin and bow, açāstravidvāṅs not knowing the text-books, arjunadarçivāṅs having seen Arjuna, apriyaçaṅsivāṅs announcing what is disagreeable, gāutamabruvāṇá calling himself Gautama.
1274. Compounds with derivatives in ti have (like combinations with the prefixes: 1157 e) the accent of the prior member.
a. Examples are: dhánasāti winning of wealth, sómapīti soma-drinking, deváhūti invocation of the gods, námaūkti utterance of homage, havyádāti presentation of offerings; and so tokásāti, deváhiti, rudráhūti, sūktókti, svagā́kṛti, díviṣṭi.
b. In nemádhiti, medhásāti, vanádhiti (all RV.), the accent of the prior member is changed from penult to final.
c. Where the verbal character of the derivative is lost, the general rule of final accent (1267) is followed: thus, devahetí weapon of the gods, devasumatí favor of the gods, brahmacití Brahman-pile. Also in sarvajyāní entire ruin, the accent is that of compounds with ordinary nouns.
1275. Compounds with a derivative in in as final member have (as in all other cases) the accent on the ín.
a. Thus, ukthaçaṅsín psalm-singing, vratacārín vow-performing, ṛṣabhadāyín bullock-giving, satyavādín truth-speaking, çroṇipratodín thigh-pounding.
1276. There is a group of compounds with derivatives in i, having the accent on the penult or radical syllable.
a. Thus, pathirákṣi road-protecting, havirmáthi sacrifice-disturbing, ātmadū́ṣi soul-harming, pathiṣádi sitting in the path, sahobhári strength-