and the third (Ewell's) brought up the rear. The cavalry was disposed of as follows: two brigades on the Cash Town road, under General Fitz. Lee, and the remainder (Jenkins' and Chambliss' brigades) under my immediate command, was directed to proceed by way of Emmetsburg, Maryland, so as to guard the other flank. I dispatched Captain Blackford, corps engineer, to General Robertson, to inform him of my movement, and direct his co-operation, as Emmetsburg was in his immediate front, and was probably occupied by the enemy's cavalry. It was dark before I had passed the extreme right of our line, and, having to pass through very dense woods, taking by-roads, it soon became so dark that it was impossible to proceed. We were in danger of losing the command as well as the road. It was raining also. We halted for several hours, when, having secured a good guide, and it becoming more light, the march was resumed, and just at dawn we entered Emmetsburg. We there learned that a large body of the enemy's cavalry (the citizens said 15,000, which I knew, of course, was exaggerated) had passed that point the afternoon previous, going towards Monterey, one of the passes designated in my instructions to General Robertson. I halted for a short time to procure some rations, and, examining my map, I saw that this force could either attempt to force one of those gaps, or, foiled in that (as I supposed they would be), it would either turn to the right and bear off towards Fairfield, where it would meet with like repulse from Hill's or Longstreet's corps, or, turning to the left before reaching Monterey, would strike across by Œiler's Gap towards Hagerstown, and thus seriously threaten that portion of our trains, which, under Imboden, would be passing down the Greencastle pike the next day, and interpose itself between the main body and its baggage. I did not consider that this force could seriously annoy any other portion of our command, under the order of march prescribed, particularly as it was believed those gaps would be held by General Robertson till he could be reinforced by the main body. I therefore determined to adhere to my instructions, and proceed by way of Cavetown, by which I might intercept the enemy, should he pass through Œiler's Gap.
In and around Emmetsburg we captured sixty or seventy prisoners of war, and some valuable hospital stores en route from Frederick to the army.The march was resumed on the road to Frederick, till we reached a small village called Cooperstown, where our route turned short to the right. Here I halted the column to feed, as the horses were much fatigued and famished. The column, after an hour's halt, continued through Harbaugh valley, by Zion Church, to pass the Catoctin mountains. The road separates before debouching from the mountain, one fork leading to the left by Smithtown, and the other to the right, bearing more towards Leitersburg. I divided my command, in order to make the passage more certain, Colonel Ferguson, commanding Jenkins' brigade, taking the left route, and