The Surrender of Vickshurg. 353
out manoeuvered and forced to retire to Memphis from whence he had set out ; the advance of the enemy on Vicksburg- via Chickasaw Bayou, met with disastrous defeat, and the combined naval and land attack on Fort Pemberton, Tallahatchie River, was signally re- pulsed — all these successes are overlooked.
In October 1862, Lieutenant-General Pemberton was assigned to the Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, and upon assum- ing command, he at once perceived the magnitude of the under- taking. The army of North Mississippi, but lately defeated at Corinth, and considerably demoralized, required a thorough re-orga- nization. Confusion reigned equally in the Quartermaster, Com- missary, Engineer and Ordnance Departments. No system of any kind prevailed, and the whole department was one Chaos.
From this disorganization, order began gradually to arise ; chiefs of the various departments were appointed, and through their untiring exertion, aided and directed by the Lieutenant-General command- ing, the department was reorganized, remodelled and supplied. Any officer or soldier who served in the army of Mississippi and East Louisiana, can vouch for the truth of this speedy revolu- tion. The duties of the department were arduous and extended, and were met with vigor and energy. Holly Springs, Port Hudson, Vicksburg, points separated by hundreds "of miles, were continually visited, and the works at the two latter places were pushed forward to speedy completion. At the same time the administration of the department was by no means neglected ; and frequently the nights which might have been given to rest were devoted to the labors of the office.
When the winter season had closed in, and the enemy had begun to threaten Vicksburg and Port Hudson, the army which had hitherto served in North Mississippi was withdrawn to these points. The cavalry — five thousand strong — which had belonged to that army, was separated and sent to General Bragg. To the withdrawal of this, almost the entire cavalry force of the department, much of the subsequent disaster is to be attributed. This proceeding was con- trary to the wishes and judgment of the Lieutenant-General com- manding, and against his protest. General Pemberton is known to have professed himself totally unable to keep his railroad communi- cations open, and to protect the country from inroads without the aid of a strong force of cavalry.
Grierson's Raid, which occurred in April, and closely preceeded Grant's advance upon Vicksburg, was evidently concerted lor the 5