Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1871.djvu/611
AEEA AND POPULATION.
The population of the United States has been ascertained at all times with great accuracy. The census is taken in the States in obedience to Article 1, section 2, of the Constitution, which pro- vides that ' Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included in this Union ac- cording to their respective numbers ; ' and the same section directs that ' the actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years.' Under these provisions, and the laws passed in pursuance of them, the census of the United States has been taken nine times, viz., in 1790, in 1800, in 1810, in 1820, in 1830, in 1840, in 1850, in 1860, and in 1870.
The following table gives the total population of the United States, at each of the nine enumerations from 1790 to 1870, the number of the ninth and last census being partly based on returns not actually verified : —
5,30.3.: 2 i
The subjoined table, drawn up for the Statesman's Year-book by the Superintendent of the Ninth Census of the United States, gives the population of the various States and Territories of the Union according to the enumeration of June, 1870. In transmit- ting the table, the Superintendent added the following explanatory remarks, dated Department of the Interior, Washington, December 2nd, 1870 : — ' Unavoidable delays in some of the Southern States, consequent upon the unsettled condition of society, the infrequency and irregularity of the mails, and the occurrence of floods to an unusual extent, will postpone the actual completion of the census work. The table accompanying presents the population of the several States and Territories under three classes : —
' " Exact " where full returns have been received and counted at the Census office, after rejecting all improper entries ;
' "Approximate " where the enumeration has been completed, and the marshals of the several districts have certified to the number of names upon the returns ;
' ; ' Estimated " where sub-divisions are still remaining incomplete.