(Kemi. — Mask.)
Government, Revenue, and Army.
Nominally a pashalik of the Turkish empire, Egypt has been virtually an independent state since the year 1811, when Mehemet Ali, appointed Governor in 1800, made himself absolute master of the country by force of arms. His position was recognised, by the Imperial Hatti-Skeriff of February 13, 1841, issued, under the guarantee of the five great FAiropean powers, which established the hereditary succession to the throne of Egypt, under the same rules and regulations as that to the throne of Turkey. The title given to Mehemet AH and his immediate successors was the Turkish one of ' Vali,' or Viceroy; but this was changed by an Imperial firman of May 14, 1867, into the higher Arabic of ' Kedervi-el-Masr,' or King of Egvpt, and the present ruler has since been known as the Kedervi, or, as more commonly called, Khedive. By the same firman of May 14, 1867, obtained on the condition of the sovereign of Eorypt raising his annual tribute to the Sultan's civil list from 80,000 purses, or 360,000/., to 150,000 purses, or 675,000/., the succession to the throne of Egypt Avas made direct, from father to son, instead of descending, after the Turkish law, to the eldest heir.
Khedive of Egypt. — Ismail Pasha, born Nov. 26, 1816, eldest sur- viving son of Ibrahim, son of Mehemet Ali ; succeeded to the Government at the death of his uncle, Said, Jan. 18, 1863. Heir- apparent of the Khedive is his son, Mechmed-Tefwik, born 1863.
The present sovereign of Egypt is the fifth of the family of Mehemet Ali. His predecessors were : —
Ibrahim, son of Mehemet Abbas, grand-son of Mehemet Said, son of Mehemet .
1769 1789 1813 1822
1849 1848 1854 1863
June— Nov. 1848
The government of Egypt, since the time of Mehemet Ali, has been a pure despotism, there being no laws, civil or religious, to restrict the absolute power of the hereditary rulers. They unite in their persons all legislate, executive, and judicial authority, and dispose of the lives and property of their subjects.
The administration of Egypt is carried on by a Council of State of four military and four civil dignitaries, appointed by the Khedive.