Rather more than one-third of the public income is derived from customs duties, and the rest is made up by land revenue, various small taxes, and an imperial grant in aid, amounting to 12,550Z. per annum. The public debt of the colony amounted to 1,027,400/. on the 1st of January, 1869. — (Communication of the Governor to the Statesman' 1 s Year-book.)
Population and Trade.
As defined by Royal Commission, Western Australia includes all that portion of New Holland situated to the westward of 190° E. long. The greatest length of this territory is 1,280 miles from north to south, and 800 miles from east to west. The occupied portion of the colony is about 600 miles in length from north to south, by about 150 miles in average breadth.
Western Australia was first settled in 1829, and for many years made but little progress, owing, to a certain extent, to an absence of water. In 1850, the colony had not more than 6,000 inhabitants, while, at the census of 1861, there was a population of 15,691, namely, 9,852 males and 5,839 females.
According to an enumeration made December 31, 1868, Western Australia, at that period, contained 22,733 inhabitants, of whom 14,539 were males, and 8,194 females. Rather more than one-third of the number lived in the towns of Fremantle and Perth ; the rest were dispersed over an area of 560 miles by 130. They consist of farmers who cultivate 100 acres, and run 1,000 to 20,000 sheep ; ' cockatoo farmers,' who consume their produce, and carry on some trade ; and pensioners, who do military duty, and have allotments. The live stock of the colony, on the 31st December 1868, consisted of 599,756 sheep, 46,211 cattle, and 18,924 horses. No settled district of any size will carry more than an average of one sheep to twenty acres.
The total value of the imports and exports of Western Australia, in the five years from 1864 to 1868, is shown in the subjoined state- ment : —
The value of the commercial intercourse of Western Australia with Great Britain and Ireland in the five years from 1865 to 1869 is shown in the following table : —