(Crnagora — Kara-dagh.) Reigning Prince.
Nicholas I., Petrovic Njegos, born October 7 (September 25), 1841 ; educated at Trieste and Paris ; proclaimed Prince of Montenegro, as successor of his uncle, Danilo I., August 14, 1860. Married, November 8, 1860, to Milcna I'tfrovna Vucoticova, born j^lay 4, 1847, daughter of Peter Vukotic, senator, and Vice-President of the Council of State. Oilspring of the union are three sons, Danilo Alexander, heir-apparent, born June 29, 1871 ; Mirko, born April 17, 1879 ; Peter, born October 10, 1889 ; and six daugliters,^ Militza, born July 26, 1866, married, August 7, 1889, to the Russian Grand Duke Peter Nikolaievitch ; Stana, born January 4, 1868, married August 28, 1889, to George, Duke of Leuchtenberg ; Helena, born January 8, 1873, married October 24, 1896, to Victor Emanuel, Prince of Naples ; Anna, born August 18, 1874, married May 18, 1897, to Prince Francis Joseph of Battenberg ; Xenia, born April 22, 1881 ; Tew, born February 22, 1887.
The supreme power has been retained in the family of Petrovic Njegos, descending collaterall)', since the time of Danilo Petrovic, who, being pro- claimed Vladika, or prince-bishop, of Montenegro in 1697, liberated the country from the Turks, and, having established himself as both spiritual and tem- poral ruler, entered into a religious and political alliance with Kussia. His successors retained the theocratic power till the death of Peter Petrovic II. (October 31, 1851), last Vladika of Montenegro, a ruler of great wisdom, as well as a widely celebrated poet. He was succeeded by his nejihew, Danilo I., who abandoned the title of Vladika, together with the spiritual functions attached to it, and substituted that of Gospodar, or Prince. At the same time Danilo I., to throw off a remnant of nominal dependency upon Turkey, acknowledged by his predecessors, obtained the recognition of his new title from Russia. In 1878 the independence of Montenegro was formally recog- nised by Turkey and the other Signatory Powers of the Treaty of Berlin. That Treaty closes the Port of Antivari and all the waters of JNIontenegro to the ships of war of all nations, and places the administration of the maritime and sanitary police on the coast of Montenegro in the hands of Austria.
The following is the complete list of the Retrovir dynasty, with their dates : —
Vlaclikas or Prince-Bishops. Danilo . . . 1696-1735 | Peter I. (St. Peter) . 1782-1830
Sava and Vassili . . 1735-1782 | Peter II. (Vladika Rade) 1830-1851 Danilo I. (Kuiaz and Gospodar) ...... 1851-1860
Nicholas I. (reigning Prince, nephew of the last)
Former rulers of Montenegro possessed the whole of the revenues of the country, and, in fact, this system obtains still, although laws have from time to time been passed regulating both the Prince's annual civil list and the public expenditure. Prince Nicholas's nominal yearly income is fixed for the present at 9,000 ducats, or 4,100Z. A yearly sum of 48,000 roubles, or 4,800Z., has been received by ilontenegro from Russia since the Crimean war, as a reward for its friendly attitude during that period. The Austrian Government is stated to contribute about 30,000 florins per annum towards the construction of carriage roads in Montenegro.
Tlie Constitution of the country, dating from 1852, with changes effected in 1855 and 1879, is nominally that of a limited monarchy, resting on a patriarchal foundation. The executive authority rests M'ith the reigning Prince, while the legislative power is vested, according to an ' Administrative Statute ' ^ 1 The Prince's eldest dauj;1ittr, Zorka, M'ho died in 1SS7, was married to Prince Peter Kaiagoorgevitch, "Pretender " to the tluouc of Scrvia.