Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1899 American Edition.djvu/1270

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914

RUSSIA

The chief nationalities of Transcaucasia were as follows in 1886-90 : —

Russians Greeks . Kurds . Ossets . Armenians JeAvs Georgians

140,095 57,156 97,499 76,130

965,167 33,663

400,487

Imeretes

Gurians

Ajares .

Mingrelians

Aphasians

Svanetes

419,967 74,171 59,495

214,601 29,260 14,035

Samurzakanes Turcomans . Turks . Tartars Tatis . Talyshins

27,247 10,174 75,863 1,107,232 124,693 88,449

The remaining nationalities number less than 10,000 each.

According to a recent partial census, the Jews number 2,843,364 in the western and south-Avestern provinces of Russia (2,261,863 in towns), that is 11*3 per cent, of the aggregate population ; 77,275 in the three townships of Odessa (73,389, i.e. 35 "1 per cent, of population), Kertch, and Sebastopol ; and 431,800 in five governments only of Poland out of ten (11 per cent, of population). Their aggregate number in Russia would thus exceed 3^ millions.

II. Movement of the Population.

The statistics of marriages, births, and deaths for 1895, if not otherwise mentioned, appear as follows : —

Marriages (1890.)

Births (1895.)

Birth- rate

Deaths (1895.)

Death- rate

Surplus (1895.)

Russia in Europe

and Poland , Finland (1896) Siberia . Caucasus . Central Asia

867,4761

16,189

23,481^

56,5501

8,5401

4,916,259

83,884 259,288 347,817 127,699

47-1 33-3 51-2 41-3 32-0

44 :

3,385,485

49,289

177,834

221,762

84,855

32-5 19-5 35-4 26-1 19-7

1,530,774 34,595'^ 81,454 126,055

42,844

Total .

972,236

5,734,947

3,919,225

30-4

1,815,722

1 In 1893.

Immigrated, 5i',:i40; emigrated, 59,353.

The average births and deaths for the years 1890-95 were, per 1,000 inhabitants: in European Russia, respectively, 46 '3 and 33 '6 ; for Caucasia, 39-9 and 26-6 ; for Siberia, 46-8 and 33*4 ; for Central Asia, 377 and 25 7 ; for the Empire (exclusive of Finland) 45 '8 and 33 '3 ; while the average per- centage of surplus in 1883-95 was 1*38 per cent, of the total })opulation. It is estimated that over 25 per cent, of all new-born children die before reaching the age of one year, and over 40 per cent, before reaching five years.

The movement of the population among Greek-Orthodox only is given by the Holy Synod as follows : —

Year

Marriages

Births

Deaths

Increase

1888 1889 1890 1891 1892

726,150 697,343 659,836 706,949 733,652

3,932,075 4,130,793 4,047,109 4,291,646 3,991,568

2,550,698 2,939,197 3,011,888 3,045,828 3,564,352

1,101 893 1,243,204 1,381,377 1,245,810 427,216

According to ofiBcial statistics there was in Russia an excess of emigration over immigr^tiou in the case of Russians of 1,146,052 in 33 years (1856-1888),