Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1899 American Edition.djvu/1325

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PAUPERISM — FINANCE— INDUSTRY

969

Years

Marriages

Births

Deaths

Excess of Birtlis

1892 1893 1894 1895 1896

14,825 14,095 16,113 18,256 19,189

76,433 73,030 76,206 84.010 83,884

57,486 51,002 47,467 46,709 49,289

18,947 22,028 28,739 37,301 34,595

Immigration in 1895, 59,240. Emigration, 59,353.

Instruction.

In 1897 Finland liad 1 university, with 2,062 students (158 ladies); in 1896 1 polytechnic, 184 students ; 43 lyceums (23 State), 6,488 pupils ; 15 real schools, 668 i)upiLs ; 71 girls' schools, 5,217 pui)ils ; 1,273 higher primary schools, with 56,956 pupils; in 37 towns, primary schools with 724 teachers and 25,233 pupils; 4 teachers' schools, with 647 pupils. There are besides 7 navigation schools, with 180 pujiils ; 8 commercial schools, with 475 ^wpils ; 34 primary trade schools, with 1,010 pupils ; and 8 higher, with 384 pupils ; 18 agricultural and 28 dairy schools, with 653 pupSs, In the Lutheran and Greek Orthodox parishes in 1896, out of 457,678 children of school age (from 7 to 15 years old), 18,771 received no education.

There were, in 1896, 73 Swedish, 99 Finnish, and 5 Swedish-and. Finnish newspapers and reviews published.

Pauperism and Crime.

The number of paupers in 1895 supported by the towns and the village communities was 87,367 (3 "5 per cent, of the population) ; and the total cost was 3,412,352 marks.

The prison population, at the end of 1895, was 1,863 men and 617 women, while the number of sentences pronounced for crimes in 1893 Avas 2,772, and for minor offences 10,592.

Finance.

The estimated receipts for 1897 were 65,601,746 marks (14,664,098 marks being left from previous budgets, and 2,000,000 marks being taken from the reserve fund), and expenditure the same (11,227,168 marks being left for the next year). Of the revenue, 5,801,620 marks came from direct taxes ; 24,480,000 marks indirect taxes. The chief items of expenditure are military affairs, 7,997,920 marks; civil administration, 9,827,195 marks; worship and education, 7,682,335 ; public debt, 4,663,160.

The public debt on January 1, 1898, amounted to 84,264,668 marks, as against 85,130,944 marks on Jaimary 1, 1890 ; of which l,7i>9,560 marks internal. The debt is at 3^ and 4 per cent, interest.

Industry.

The land was divided in 1895 among 117,700 owners (345 nobles, 2,218 Burger, 111,557 peasants, and 297 foreigners in 1888), and the landed property was distributed as follows : — Less than 12^ acres, 32,711 i»ersons (as against 42,592 in 1885) ; from 12^ to 62§ acres, 60,121 persons, from 62^ to 250 acres,