Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1899 American Edition.djvu/1329

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BOKHARA — KHIVA 973

Russian trade. In 1873 a further treaty was signed, in virtue of which no foreigner was to be admitted to Bokhara without a Russian passport, and the State became practically a Russian dependency.

Ameers of Bokhara.— ^2.y\^ KmQQT Hyder, 1799-1826 ; Mir Hussein, 1826 ; Mir Omir, 1826-27 ; Mir Nasrulla, 1827-60 ; Muzaffer-ed-din, 1860-85.

Area about 92,000 square miles, population about 2,500,000. Chief towns — Bokhara, about 75,000 ; Karshi, 25,000 ; Khuzar, Shahr-i-Sabz, Hissar, 10,000 ; Charjui, Karakul, Kerniine.

The religion is JMahomedan.

The Ameer has 20,000 troops, of which 4,000 are quartered in the city. A proportion of the troops are armed with Russian rifles and have been taught the Russian drill

Bokhara produces corn, fruit, silk, tobacco, and hemp ; and breeds goats, sheep, horses, and camels. The yearly ])roduce of cotton is said to be about 32,000 tons, of silk 967 tons. Gold, salt, alum, and sulphur are the chief minerals found in the country.

The following figures show the trade of Bokhara in 1887 : —

Imports.— Yvom Russia, 10,600,000 roubles ; from Persia, 5,475,000 roubles; from Afghanistan and India, 600,000 roubles; total imports, 16,675,000 roubles.

Exports.— "To Russia, 12,500,000 roubles; to Persia 2,120,000; to Afghanistan and India, 420,000 roubles ; total exports, 15,040,000 roubles.

In 1890 the exports, Russian and native, from Bokhara to Aighanistan, are said to have been 3,944,568 roubles ; the imports (largely Anglo-Indian) from Bokhara to Afghanistan 4,884,270 roubles.

The yearly imports of green tea, mostly from India, are said to amount to 1,125 tons. The imports from India also include indigo, Dacca muslins, drugs, shawls, and kincobs. Bokhara exports raw silk to India, the quantity exported in one year being estimated at 34 tons. The exports of cotton in 1888 were 122,000 bales. By the treaty of 1873 all merchandise belonging to Russian traders, whether imported or exported, pays a duty of 2^ per cent. ad valorem. No other tax or import duty can be levied on Rus.sian goods, which are also exempt from all transit duty. The Ameer has forbidden the import of spirituous liquors excej)t for the use of the Russian Embassy.

The Russian Trans-Caspian Railway now runs through Bokhara from Charjui, ontheOxus, to a station within a few miles of the capital, and thence to Samarkand ; the distance from Charjui to the Russian frontier station of Katti Kurghan being about 186 miles.

There is a telegraph line from Samarkand to Bokhara, the capital.

Russian paper roubles are current everywhere. The Bokhara silver tenga is valued at ocl.

Russian Political Resident, W. J. Ignatieff.

Books of Reference concerning Bokhara.

Burnet (Sir Alexander), Travels into Bokhara. 1S39.

Curzon (Hon. G.), Russia in Central Asia. 1889. [Contains ample Bibliography].— The Pamirs and the source of the Oxus. London, 1897.

Le Messurier (Col. A.), From London to Bokhara, 1889. O'Doiwcan (E.), Tlie Merv Oasis. 2 vols. London, 1880. Vambery, History of Bokhara. London, 1873.

KHIVA.

A Russian vassal State in Central Asia, lying between N. latitude 43^ 40' and 41% and E. longitude 58° and 61" 50'. Extreme length 200 miles ; ex- treme breadth 140 miles ; bounded on the north by the Aral Sea, on the east by the river Oxus, on the south and west by the Russian Trans-Caspian province.