there are statistics) there were in the country 5,983 public elementary schools with 248,906 pupils, and in towns 2,001 classes with 62,440 pupils; the amount expended on both being 8,319,282 kroner, of which 1,949,822 kroner was granted by the State, the rest being provided in towns by the towns themselves, in rural districts partly by the separate parish communes, partly by the county communes (Amtskommuner). There are 83 secondary schools: 14 public, 42 communal, 27 private. Of the secondary schools 19 have a higher department for classics, or mathematics, or both, viz. 14 public, 1 communal, 4 private. Most of the secondary schools are mixed, 15 are for girls alone: 1 communal, 14 private. The number of pupils in the secondary schools in 1894 was 11,325. Besides these, 75 communal and private schools have 3,629 pupils more or less advanced. There were in 1894, 6 public normal schools and 3 private, with 478 students. Kristiania has a University, attended in 1897 by 1,220 students. In the financial year 1897-8 it has, besides its own incomes amounting to 295,400 kroner, a subsidy of 497,493 kroner from the State.
Justice and Crime.
For civil justice Norway is divided into 119 districts, each with an inferior court. Of these 82 are rural courts, divided into 447 circuits. The other courts are in towns. There are 3 superior courts, having each one chief justice and two other justices, and one supreme court for the whole kingdom (Höiesteret), consisting of 1 president and at least 6 other justices. There is a court of mediation (Forligelseskommission) in each town and Herred (district), consisting of two men chosen by the electors, before which, as a rule, civil cases must first be brought.
According to the law of criminal procedure of July 1, 1887, all criminal cases (not military, or coming under the Rigsret—the court for impeachments) shall be tried either by jury (Lagmandsret), or Meddomsret.
The Lagmandsret consists of three judges (1 Lagmand, or president), and 10 jurors (Lagrettemand). The Kingdom is divided into 5 jury districts (Lagdömmer), each having its chief judge (Lagmand). Each district is divided into circuits, corresponding, as a rule, to the counties (Amter), in which courts are held at fixed times. The Meddomsret consists of the judge and is held in the district of the inferior court, and 2 assistant judges (not professional) summoned for each case. The Lagmandsret takes cognisance of the higher classes of offences. The Meddomsret is for the trial of other offences, and is also a court of first instance.
The prosecutions are directed by the State advocates (Statsadvokater), 13 in number, subordinate to one Rigsadvokat.
The number of persons convicted of crimes was: in 1894, 2,948; in 1893, 2,949; in 1892, 3,026; in 1891, 2,548; in 1890, 2,603. For offences against public order and police, penalties were, in 1894, inflicted upon 28,825 persons.
There are four convict prisons (1 a penitentiary); inmates, June 30, 1896, 657 (565 were males and 92 females).
There are, besides, 55 district prisons, in which, in 1895, 10,915 persons were detained. There are 3 reformatories for young offenders between 10 and 15 years.
The police force of Kristiania numbers 439 men, including 15 superior functionaries.
In Norway the relief of the poor is mostly provided for by local taxation, but certain expenditure is also borne by the Amter (counties) and by the State.