There are 19 engineer companies (pioneers), and 4 telegraph companies distributed among the 7 ordus, the second ordu having, besides, a pontoon train. There are also 12 engineer companies and 4 torpedo companies belong- ing to the Ordnance Department. The train service, so far as it exists, consists of 13 companies. The supply service is almost entirely staff ; extraneous transport would be rc([nire(l for commissariat supplies. The medical service consists only of meilieal olUceis and apothecaries ; there are no bearers nor cadres for field hospitals. There are 117 battalions of gendarmerie, a military organisation under civil control in time of peace.
The following is a summary of the effective combatant services of the Turkish Army :—
Infantry 648 battalions 583,200 men
Cavalry 202 sciuadrons 55,300 ,,
Artillery 1,356 guns 54,720 ,,
Engineers 39 companies 7,400 ,,
The war strength of the army, permanent, territorial, and reserve, in 1897 was about 900,000 men.
There has lately been a rumour that an effort was to bo made to increase the Ottoman fleet, and overtures have been made to shipbuilding firms in this country and in Germany. There is not, however, any evidence of real progress. A survey of the navy reveals it as mainly an obsolescent, and in great part already an obsolete fighting force. The ships are of such small displacement or were built so long ago (1864-65) as to belong now to the class local defence vessels.
Information concerning the state of the Turkish navy is not readily accessible, but the following talde is based upon such information as is avail- able. It excludes transports, training ships, and non-effective vessels. On the whole it errs by giving a picture too favourable. ^Many of the smaller vessels are probably useless.
Coast Defence Ships Cruisers, 2nd class . Cruisers, 3rd class Gunboats, &c.
Torpedo craft, 1st class. ,, 2nd ,, ,1 11 orcl ,,
Launched Build- Dec. 1897 ing !
The table which follows is of the Turkish arinourclad fleet. Abbrevia- tions : — a.rj.b. armoured gunboat; bar., barbette; c.b., central batteiy;^., turret ; Q.F., quick-firing. In the column of armaments, light and machine guns are not given.