THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — UNITED KINGDOM
The following table shows the strength of the police force in England and Wales, Scotland, and Ireland : —
Year England and Wales Scotland Ireland Year England and Wales Scotland Ireland 1880 1890 1894 31,488 39,221 40,609 3,484 4,103 4,525 12,579 13,921 13,331 1895 1896 1897 40,966 41,560 42,140 4,583 4,598 4,707 13,187 13,141 12,900
Pauperism. There is a Poor Law, under a variety of statutes, applicable to the Three Kingdoms, by which paupers, under certain conditions, are to be relieved in their own houses or lodged in workhouses or poor-houses built for the purpose. The law is administered by the Local Government Board, through Boards of Guardians elected for the purpose. England and AVales, including the Me- tropolis and the municipal boroughs, are divided into 650 poor law unions, for each of which there is elected a Board of Guardians. In some cases the union consists of only one parish ; in others several are included according to popula- tion. In urban districts and in the Metropolis guardians are separately elected, but in rural districts the rural district councillors act as guardians for the parishes they represent on the district council. Guardians are elected on the same popular franchise as district councillors. In every civil parish overseers are appointed whose duty it is to make and collect the poor rate. In urban districts, which include boroughs, the local authority raise and collect rates for local government purposes, but in rural districts and rural parishes the funds for this purpose are, as a general rule, taken from the poor-rate. The following table shows the total amount expended in relief of the poor for the last five years (ended March 25 for England and Ireland, and May 14 for Scotland). For Scotland, the amount includes expenditure on buildings, but not from loans : —
Year England & Wales Scotland Ireland Total U.K.
� � � �
1893 9,217,514 926,544 1,037,993 11,182,051 1894 9,673,505 956,815 1,044,927 11,675,247 1895 9,866,605 994,014 1,049,724 11,910,343 1896 10,215,974 1,037,931 1,056,276 12,310,180 1897 10,432,189 1,058,214 1,049,842 12,540,245
The number of paupers, exclusive of vagrants and 'casual poor' in receipt of relief in the several unions and parishes of England and Wales was as follows on January 1 of the last five years : —