DEFENCE — PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRY 229
Military College at Kingston, founded in 1875. The Dominion is divided into twelve military districts, each district being commanded by a Deputy Adjutant-General, whose appointment is permanent. A small-arm.s ammuni- tion factory is in operation in Quebec. There is at present no active marine militia, the naval defences of the country being the care of the Imperial authorities. According to the Navy List thirteen ships are on the North America and West India Stations, besides seven others on the Pacific Station.
Production and Industry.
Agriculture— Of the total area of Canada in 1891, there were 28,537,242 acres of improved land out of 60,287,730 acres of occupied land. Of the improved lands, 19,904,826 acres were under crop, being 4,792,542 acres more than were under crop in 1881. The acreage under pasture in 1891 was 15,284,788 acres, an increase of 8,899,226 acres since 1881. The acreage under wheat in 1891 was 2,723,861 acres, an increase of 381,506 acres in ten years. The average yield of 1891 per acre was 15-4 bushels, an increase of IQ bushels per acre over the yield of 1881. There is a central experimental farm near Ottawa, and others in several of the provinces. In 1895 there were 195 ranches in the N.-W. Territories covering an area of 904,187 acres.
Forestry. — The timber wealth of Canada is very large, and timbering one of its most important industries. The forest area is estimated at 1,248,798 square miles. The forest products of 1891 were valued at 80,071,415 dollars, of which 27,207,547 dollars were exported. The census returns show an aggregate of 2,045,073,072 cubic feet as the total cut of the year. The forest products exported to the United Kingdom in 1897 amounted in value to 14,973,292 dollars out of a total of 32,937,976 dollars. The recently intro- duced wood pulp industry is increasing rapidly, the exportable surplus being 741,960 dollars in 1897, chiefly going to Great Britain and the United States. The Crown forests belong to the Provincial Governments, excej)t in Manitoba, the N. W. Territories, and the Railway Belt (forty miles wide), in British Columbia, where they belong to the Dominion.
Fishericn. — The total value of the produce of the fisheries of Canada in 1896 was 20,407,424 dollars; in 1895, 20,185,298 dollars. The values of the principal catches in 1896 were: cod, 3,610,979 dollars; salmon, 4,009,679 dollars ; herring, 2,909,744 dollars ; lobsters, 2,205,762 dollars, and mackerel, 727,743 dollars. In 1896, according to provinces, the values were: Nova Scotia, 6,070,895 dollars; British Columbia, 4,183,999 ; New Brunswick, 4,799,433; Quebec, 2,025,754; Ontario, 1,605,674; Prince Edward Island, 976,126 ; Manitoba and N.W. Territories, 745,543.
Mining. — Nova Scotia, British Columbia, Quebec, N. and W. Ontario, and part of the N.-W. Territories, are the chief mining districts of Canada. The total value of the mineral produce of Canada was in 1897, 28,779,173 dollars ; in 1896, 22,609,825 dollars. The principal product is coal, of which in 1896, 3,745,716 tons were raised, valued at 7,226,462 dollars ; in 1897, 3,876,201 tons valued at 7,442,204 dollars. Among the other minerals produced in 1897 were gold, 6,190,000 dollars; nickel, 1,400,000 dollars: asbestos, 324,700 dollars; petroleum, 1,011,546 dollars ; copper, 1,501,660 dollars; silver, 3,322,000 dollars ; lead, 1,396,850 dollars; iron ore, 178,719 dollars. It is estimated that the coal-bearing area of the N.-W. Territories extends over 65,000 square miles.