The chief imports and exports in 1897 were : —
Textiles, apparel. .
Cod oil .
Seal oil .
Herring (pickled) .
Copper and ore
Iron ore and Pyrites
Of the imports the value of 402,946?. came from Great Britain ; 327, 521 Z. from Canada ; 438,562Z. from the United States. Of the exports the value of 277,248/. went to Great Britain; 98,242?. to Canada; 176,328?. to Portugal ; 172,067?. to Brazil ; 109,628?. to United States. Total tonnage of vessels entered and cleared in 1897, 717,703, of which 691,817 was British. The total number of vessels registered in the colony on December 31, 1897, was 2,333 sailing vessels of 99,199 tons, and 35 steam vessels of 6,919 tons; total 2,363 vessels of 106,118 tons. Fishing is the principal occupa- tion of the population, the value of the fish caught being over one million sterling annually.
In 1891 there were 64,494 acres of- cultivated land. The chief products are potatoes, turnips, and other root crops, hay, barley, oats. In 1891 there were in Newfoundland 6,138 horses, 23,822 cattle, 60,840 sheep, and 32,011 swine. Some fine pine forests exist to the north, and large saw mills have been established. The mineral resources of Newfoundland are considerable. Large beds of iron ore have been found and are being worked on Bell Island in Conception Bay, on the east coast, and other rich deposits have been discovered on the west coast. Coal of excellent quality is found near St. George's Bay on the west coast, and in the Grand Lake district. In the eastern part of the island gold-bearing quartz rock, and extensive deposits of silver and lead ore have been found.
Railways open in 1897 : 633 miles. The transinsular railway has been completed, with branch lines to important towns and settlements. Connec- tion between Port aux Basques, the western terminus, and Cape Breton on the mainland, is made by a first-class well-equipped steamer, which crosses the strait in six hours. Express trains run tri-weekly, making close connection with the railway system of Canada. Telegraph line open (1897) 1,314 miles. A contractor has agreed with the Government to take over and work the railways, telegraphs, steam communication, coal mines, and other undertakings.
Report on the Mineral Resources of Newfoundland. London, 1890.
Correspondence concerning the Contract for the Sale of tiie Government Railway and for other Purposes. February to June, 1898. London, 1898.
Bcedeker's Canada and Newfoundland. 8. Leipzig, 1894.
Cartwright (George), Journal of Sixteen Years' Residence on the Coast of Labrador. S vols. 4. Newark, 1792.
Chalmer$ (R.), A History of Currency in the British Colonies. London, 1893.
Colonial Reports. Annual Series, No. 7, (1896) of Miscellaneous Series, on the Mineral Resources of the Colony. London, 1896.
Gr«n/di(W.T.), Vikings of To-day. [Labrador.] 8. London, 1895.
Harvey (M.), Newfoundland, England's Oldest Colony. London, 1897. Newfoundland In 1897. London, 1897.