Secondary and Technical Education.
In Enqland and Wales by recent Acts of Parliament the councils of counties, of county boroughs, of non-county boroughs with population over 10,000, and of urban districts with population over 20,000, are constituted local authorities for higher education. The new authorities are required, after consultation with the Board of Education, to supply or aid in supplying education other than elementary, and to promote the co-ordination of all forms of education. To these purposes they may apply money raised by rates, besides devoting to them the residue under the Local Taxation (Customs and Excise) Act, 1890, and they may borrow money. They have power to provide scholarships and to pay fees; in schools provided by them they must not pay for religious instruction; in schools not provided by them they can neither impose nor forbid religious instruction.
The secondary schools acknowledged by and receiving grants from the Board of Education are under various forms of management. In the school year 1910–11, there were in England and Wales 971 recognised secondary schools on the grant list with altogether 160,856 pupils (87,035 boys and 73,821 girls) on 31st January, 1911. Besides these schools on the Grant List, there were 97 other secondary schools recognised by the Board of Education as efficient. The number of pupils was about 17,800.
In 1910–11 there were in England and Wales 38 recognised technical institutions with 804 teachers and 3,105 (including 2,751 grant-earning) pupils: there were also 114 Institutions in which day technical classes were recognised, providing 259 courses for which grants were paid, with 1,008 teachers and 11,640 (including 10,913 grant-earning) students. In the same year there were 223 recognised schools of art with 1,551 teachers and 42,278 students, and 51 art classes with 142 teachers and 3,341 students, including 2,729 grant-earning students. In addition, for further education there were 8,164 recognised evening and similar schools and classes with 37,207 teachers and 765,275 (including 628,181 grant-earning) pupils. Examinations in science and art are held by the Board of Education, and scholarships, exhibitions, &c., are awarded to successful competitors In 1911 there were thus awarded in England and Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, 4 Whitworth scholarships, 30 Whitworth exhibitions, 11 Royal College of Art scholarships, 20 Royal scholarships (science), and 10 Royal exhibitions (art). There were awarded also 6 National scholarships in art, 17 special studentships for teachers of science and technology, 15 free art studentships and 7 free science studentships. There are also local science and art exhibitions of which 133 were awarded in 1911, and local scholarships (art) of which 24 were awarded, 2 Princess of Wales scholarships and 415 free studentships.
In Scotland, the burgh schools of various names, grammar schools, high schools, &c., are administered by the school boards. There are also endowed schools and schools under private management which give secondary education. In 1910–11 there were 56 grant-receiving secondary schools, of which 33 were under school boards. The 33 secondary schools under school boards had (in 1910–11) 764 teachers and an average attendance of 10,541 pupils; 23 endowed schools under other management had in 1910–11 601 teachers and an average attendance of 8,812. The number of schools receiving Government grants in 1910–11 included (besides the secondary schools) 196 higher grade schools or departments, with 24,444 enrolled pupils, and anaverage attendance of 24,083.
- Teachers or students are counted once for each school, class, or centre attended by them. The number of individual teachers or students is therefore less than the number given.