For Ireland there is an Intermediate Education Board, with an income of 115,091 £. in 1911, inchiding 31,058 £. in respect of 1910. Its functions are to examine all candidates who present themselves. In 1911, 12,105 students (7,963 bovs and 4,142 girls) presented themselves for examination, as compared with 11,900 in the previous year, and 8,117 in 1901. The number passed in 1911 was 6,576 (4,290 boys and 2,286 girls). In 1911 the school grant in respect of examinations paid to managers of schools amounted to 46,462 £., besides prizes and bonuses to schools.
Technical instruction in Ireland is controlled by the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction, which has a Technical Instruction Board and a Consultative Committee of Education. The Department aims at the co-ordination of its work with that of other educational authorities, and in 1910–11 grants of 21,527 £. were paid to 97 technical schools and science and art schools and classes in respect of 9,904 students; 27,584 £, to 283 day secondary schools in respect of 13,028 students in experimental science, 10,880 in drawing, 2,383 in manual instruction, and 1,293 in domestic economy; and 1,619 £. to 94 primary schools in respect of 14,803 scholars in drawing (average attendance), and 1,225 scholars under manual instruction. Central institutions under the Department are the Royal College of Science, Dublin, with 121 students (1910–11), the Metropolitan School of Art, with 426 pupils (1910–11), the Irish Training School of Domestic Economy, 33 students. The Killarney school of housewifery had 42 students (1910–11). Throughout Ireland technical instruction is organised under the Councils of county boroughs, urban districts, and counties. In urban and county schools (1910–11) there were 43,309 young men and women studying non-agricultural subjects. In local examinations 2,648 candidates entered for Science subjects, and 1,746 passed, 3,387 in art, and 1,452 passed (1911). There is an annual grant of 55,000 £. for technical education, of which 26,000 £. is allotted for teclinical instruction in county boroughs, and 29,000 £. for similar purposes elsewhere. A grant of 7,000 £. called the 'equivalent grant' is made from the Ireland Development Grant for technical instruction, and a grant of 10,500 £. for manual instruction and domestic economy, and 3,000 £. for classes in lace and crochet making and other rural industries, was made by the Agricultural Board in 1910–11.
England and Wales.—Elementary education in England and Wales is now under the control of the Board of Education. Sufficient school accommodation must be provided in every district for all the resident children between the ages of 5 and 14. Under Acts of 1899 and 1900 children between 12 and 14 years of age may (if it is so provided in local bye-laws) conditionally obtain partial or total exemption from school attendance, but for children employed in agriculture the lower age limit for partial exemption is 11. An Act of 1899 requires the school authorities to make provision for the compulsory education of defective children to the age of 16 years. Under the Education Acts of 1902 and 1903, school boards and school attendance committees are abolished, their place being taken by the Councils of counties, of county boroughs, of non-county boroughs with population over 10,000, and of urban districts with population over 20,000. The last two authorities can transfer their powers to the local county councils. The education authorities must establish educational committees, each in accordance with its own scheme, which must be approved by the Board of Education. The schemes must provide for the appointment by the Council from its own members of a majority of the committee (unless in the case of counties the Council determine otherwise), for the appointment by the Council of other persons with special qualifications, and for the appointment of women on the committees. Schools provided by county councils have managers in the proportion of 4 appointed by the Council and 2 by the borough, district, or parish served by the school. Councils of county boroughs, &c., may appoint any number of managers for their provided