UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
1861. Secession of Mississippi, Alabama,
Florida, Georgia, Louisiana,
Texas; Jefferson Davis elected
President of southern confederacy.
Abraham Lincoln made president at Washington; war.
1865. Slavery abolished by federal
congress; Lincoln president (Mar).
Lincoln shot; Andrew Johnson president (April); end of the war (May).
1868. General pardon proclaimed.
1869. Suffrage bill abolishing race, colour
and property distinctions.
Ulysses Grant president.
1876. Centennial year; great demonstrations.
1877. R. B. Hayes president.
1880. General Garfield president; assassinated; succeeded by General C. A. Arthur.
1885. Grover Cleveland president; death of General Grant.
1889. Benjamin Harrison president.
1890. Tariff Bill.
1893. Cleveland again elected president; Bering sea arbitration.
1895. Commission to settle boundary
dispute between Great Britain and
Monroe doctrine of president widely disliked.
1896. William McKinley president.
1897. Annexation of Hawaii; international fur seal conference.
1898. War with Spain; treaty signed; cession of Porto Rico to U.S.A.
1900. McKinley re-elected president.
1901. McKinley shot; Theodore Roosevelt
Hay-Pauncefort treaty for construction of Panama Canal.
1902. British industrial commission received by President.
1903. Alaska boundary treaty; St. Louis exhibition.
1904. Arbitration treaty with Great Britain; Roosevelt re-elected president.
1908. Taft president.
1912. Dispute on Panama Canal Bill,
providing free passage for American
Woodrow Wilson president.
EUROPEAN POLITICS (International).
1863. Prussian aid for Russia in
suppressing Polish insurrection.
Rise of Prussian and decline of French influence in European affairs; Schleswig-Holstein questions.
1864. War between Denmark and Germany.
1866. Austro-Prussian War; Victory of
Prussia; Treaty of Prague.
Supremacy of Prussia in Germany; alliances with Württemberg, Baden and Bavaria.
Austro-ltalian treaty of Vienna; Austrian recognition of Kingdom of Italy.
1870–1. Franco-German war; fall of Paris, Jan. 28, treaty signed at Frankfurt-on-Main, May 10, 1871.
1872. Three Emperors' League (Dreikaiserbund; Germany, Austria, Russia).
1876. Austro-Russian agreement.
1877–8. Russo-Turkish war; treaty of San Stefano, modified by treaty of Berlin (1878), recasting Balkan frontiers; Russo-German estrangement, followed by—
1879. Austro-German defensive alliance
Franco-Italian dispute on French occupation of Tunis.
1882. Triple alliance (Germany, Austria, Italy).
1884. Revival of Dreikaiserbund; isolation of France.
1887. Collapse of Dreikaiserbund; Russian hostility to Germany, and birth of Franco-Russian entente.
1895–7. Armenian and Cretan questions involve action by the Powers.
1899. First Hague Conference on armaments, etc.
1901. Hague arbitration court established.
1904. Anglo-French entente.
1906. Moroccan question, conference of Algeciras (settlement, 1909).
1907. Anglo-Russian agreement.
1908. European crisis on Austrian
annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina,
following Bulgarian declaration
of independence (annexation
accepted by Powers signatory to
Berlin treaty, 1909).
Franco-German "incident" at Casablanca, Morocco; reference to Hague tribunal (settled, 1909).
International Naval Conference in London (conclusion and declaration, 1909).
1911. Franco-German treaties (Moroccan questions; adjustment of colonial frontiers in West Africa).
1861. New constitution proclaimed; common parliament.
1867. Dual monarchy established.
1877. Bosnia and Herzegovina occupied.
1905–7. Culmination of dissension between Hungary and the Crown.
1907. New agreement between Austria and Hungary.
1908. Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.