1908. Diamond jubilee of Emperor Francis Joseph.
1900. Bosnian constitution promulgated.
Balkan States and Turkish Empire.
1863. Prince William of Schleswig-Holstein proclaimed King of Greece as George I.
1864. Annexation of Ionian Islands to Greece.
1866–7. Insurrection in Crete; Turkey refuses to give up island.
1868. Assassination of Prince Michael of Servia; Prince Milan IV succeeds.
1871. Settlement of Black Sea question.
Decree incorporating Tunis with Turkish Empire.
1873. Opening of railway to Adrianople and Constantinople.
1876. Deposition of Sultan Abdul-aziz;
proclamation of Murad V;
deposed in same year and succeeded
by Abdul Hamid II.
Servia and Montenegro and Russia declare war on Turkey.
New Turkish constitution proclaimed (in abeyance, 1878–1908).
1877. Deposition of Prince Milan of Servia by Turkey.
1878. Insurrections in Crete, Thessaly, etc.; peace of San Stefano with Russia; Cyprus ceded to Great Britain; Berlin conference and treaty; Bulgaria created an autonomous principality tributary to Turkey; Independence of Montenegro and Rumania and Servia; Eastern Rumelia created a province.
1879. Treaty of peace with Russia.
1880. Cession of Dulcigno to Montenegro.
1881. Turko-Greek Convention; Thessaly
ceded to Greece.
Prince Charles of Rumania nominated as King.
1882. Prince Milan of Servia proclaimed King.
1885. Revolution in Eastern Rumelia; union with Bulgaria; Servo-Bulgarian war (peace, 1888).
1886. Peace of Bucharest; Bulgarian prince Governor-General of East Rumelia.
1887. Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria elected Prince of Bulgaria.
1893. Opening of isthmian canal, Corinth.
1895–6. Armenian revolution and massacres.
1897. Greco-Turkish war.
1899. Abdication of King Milan of Servia; his son Alexander succeeds.
1903. Military revolution in Servia,
assassination of King and Queen; King
Peter Karageorgevich proclaimed.
Macedonian revolutionary movement; severe repression by Turks.
Bagdad railway begun.
1903–5. Macedonian reform schemes discussed between Powers and Turkey.
1905. Aden boundary question settled
between Great Britain and Turkey.
International financial control scheme accepted by Turkey after naval demonstration by Powers.
1908. Bulgaria declares independence;
prince assumes title of tsar
Hejaz railway opened to Medina.
"Young Turks'" revolution; constitution of 1876 revived.
1909. Counter-revolution in
Constantinople; Sultan Abdul Hamid
deposed; his brother proclaimed as
Bulgarian agreements with Russia and Turkey.
1910. Montenegro proclaimed a kingdom.
1911. Turkey at war with Italy; loss of Tripoli.
1912. War on Turkey by Balkan allies (Bulgaria, Servia, Montenegro, Greece).
Egypt and Sudan.
1869. Inauguration of Suez Canal.
1869–73. Sir Samuel Baker's operations in Upper Nile region.
1875–7. War with Abyssinia.
1879. Khedive deposed by the Sultan of Turkey; Tewfik succeeds.
1881. Insurrection of the Mahdi (Mahomed Ahmed of Dongola).
1882. Political crisis in Egypt; bombardment of Alexandria; war with Arabi Pasha; capture of Tel-el-Kebir; abolition of Anglo-French control.
1883. Major Baring (afterwards Lord Cromer) appointed Resident.
1884. Battle of El-Teb.
1885. Battle of Abuklea; Khartum surrendered; Gordon killed.
1887. Anglo-Turkish convention; H. M. Stanley's expedition for relief of Emin Pasha.
1889. Battle of Toshi against Dervishes.
1892. Death of Tewfik; Abbas succeeds as Khedive.
1896 seqq. Sir H. H. Kitchener's operations against Dervishes.
1898. Battles of the Atbara and Omdurman; Fashoda "incident" (French occupation).
1899. Sudan convention; Anglo-French agreement (Bahr-el-Ghazal, Darfur, etc.).
1902. Completion of Assuan dam.
1904. Anglo-French agreement with reference to Egypt.
1907. Resignation of Lord Cromer.
Belgium (including Belgian Congo).
1865. Death of Leopold I and accession of Leopold II.
1870. Flemish movement; otticial use of Flemish language.
1885. International Association of the Congo; recognised as independent state.