1890. Death of King William III; accession of Queen Wilhelmina (Queen-mother as regent).
1894. Insurrection in Lomhok (Netherlands India).
1895–1902. Insurrection in Sumatra (Achin).
1898. Coronation of the Queen.
1899. Marriage of the Queen to Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
1864. Boundary treaty with Spain.
1889. Death of King Luis I; accession of King Carlos.
1889–90. Dispute with Great Britain over East African territories; submission of Portugal; agreement.
1904. Portuguese-Dutch boundary in Timor settled by treaty.
1908. Assassination of the King and Crown Prince; accession of King Manuel.
1910. Revolution and proclamation of republic.
1863. Rising in Poland.
1864. End of war in the Caucasus.
1865. Turkestan created a province.
1866. Break with Pope owing to treatment
of Polish clergy.
First trial by jury held.
War in Bokhara.
1867. Remains of Polish nationality abolislied by decree; amnesty for Poles; Russian-American territory (Alaska) sold to U.S.A.
1868. Samarkand taken.
1871. Conference for revision of Franco-Prussian treaty of 1856 which was not agreed to by Russia; Black Sea clauses deleted.
1873. Expeditions to Khiva, which surrendered.
1875. War with Khokand; Baltic provinces previously governed as province now brought under direct imperial administration.
1876. Khokand annexed.
1877. Russo-Turkish war.
1878. Peace of San Stefano; conference of European powers at Berlin; Balkh occupied; general disaffection towards government.
1879. Martial law established; expedition against Tekke Turkomans; various attempts to assassinate Czar Alexander II.
1880. Scheme for reform of the administration; many Nihilists executed.
1881. Czar assassinated; accession of
End of war with Tekke Turkomans; reforms promised; treaty with Persia.
1883. Finland granted almost complete autonomy.
1885. Russian attack on Afghans; Afghan boundary settled.
1890. Trans-Siberian railway authorised; completed 1899.
1894. Persecution in Lithuania; Imperial Committee of control subject to himself created by Czar; death of Czar; accession of Nicholas II.
1895. Russo-Persian boundary settled; agreement with England about Pamirs.
1898. Lease of Port Arthur granted by China.
1899. Severe measures against Jews; military service imposed on students; "Russification" in Finland.
1900. Banishment to Siberia much reduced; anti-Semitic riots.
1901. Famines; further student riots; great unrest and distress.
1903. Kishinev atrocities; risings against Jews; many riots.
1904. Strained relations with Japan; Russo-Japanese war; attack on Port Arthur; Battle of Liao-yang; Disturbances in Poland and elsewhere.
1905. Fall of Port Arthur; peace with Japan; riots and anarchy general; fighting between Tartars and Armenians; repressive measures; constitutional senate appointed in Finland, after serious disturbances.
1910. Russo-Japanese agreement.
1872. Death of Charles XV, King of Sweden and Norway; accession of Oscar II.
1884. Crown Prince made Viceroy Norway.
1890–1905. Disagreements of Norway with Sweden on conditions of union.
1905. Union dissolved; kingdom of Norway recognised by Sweden after referendum and conference; Prince Charles of Denmark elected as King Haakon VII of Norway.
1907. Treaty guaranteeing integrity of Norway by Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia; death of King Oscar II of Sweden; accession of King Gustav V.
1863. War in Santo Domingo.
1864. War with Peru (peace, 1866).
1865. Santo Domingo abandoned; war with Chile (ended 1866); military insurrection in Spain.
1868. Further insurrections; General Prim forms provisional government; flight of Queen Isabella II.