1870. Abdication of the Queen; nomination of Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen as King; French opposition (Franco-Prussian war follows); Prince Leopold resigns; Amadeus, Duke of Aosta, proclaimed King.
1873. Country remaining unsettled; abdication of King Amadeus; republic proclaimed; civil war.
1874. Proclamation of King Alfonso XII; conclusion of war.
1885. Death of Alfonso XII; Mercedes, princess of Asturias, succeeds.
1886. Birth of King Alfonso XIII.
1893–4. Fighting in Morocco.
1898–9. Spanish-American war; Spain evacuates Cuba, cedes Porto Rico and Philippines; Caroline and other Pacific islands ceded to Germany.
1902. Enthronement of King Alfonso XIII.
1869. Zurich adopts new constitution.
1873. Papal Nuncio expelled.
1874. Revised constitution voted; national church constituted.
1882. Opening of St. Gothard railway (tunnel preceded by that of Mont Cenis, 1870).
1890. Insurrection in Ticino.
1905. Simplon tunnel completed.
1867. War with England.
1868. Magdala burnt.
1875. War with Egypt.
1877. Johanni defeated Menelek, King of Shoa.
1879. Peace concluded.
1888. War with Italy.
Rebellion of Menelek.
1889. Italian protectorate announced (see Italy); Menelek negus.
1896. Peace signed.
1901. Expedition against Mad Mullah; English expedition to delimit boundary.
1902. Boundaries with Sudan and southwestern Eritrea settled.
1891. Hostility of Kabyle tribes; arrival of British war-ships.
1892. Peace made, with change of governor; serious risings.
1893. War between Moors and Spanish troops.
1894. Death of Muley Hazzain, Sultan; succession of Muley Abdul Aziz; peace with Spain.
1900. Twat oases occupied by French.
1901. Boundary dispute with French settled.
1902. Boundary between Algeria and Morocco settled; risings; Sultan defeated.
1903. Europeans forced to leave Fez; country in state of anarchy.
1904. Treaty between France and Spain in regard to Morocco.
1905. Further defeats of Sultan; arrival of German and British missions; French demands refused; Sultan accepts proposed conference (see further European Politics, above).
1911. Serious disturbances; relief of Fez.
Central America, with Mexico, Cuba, and Haiti.
1863. Guatemala-San Salvador war.
Proclamation of monarchy in Mexico (Archduke Maximilian of Austria Emperor); war with France in progress; civil strife between republicans and imperialists.
1868. Ten years' war in Cuba begins.
1872. Guatemala and Honduras allied against San Salvador.
1875. First presidency of Diaz in Mexico.
1878. Convention in Cuba.
1881. French operations begun on Isthmian Canal (suspended, 1889).
1888. Costa Rica-Nicaraguan boundary settlement.
1890. Guatemala and Honduras again at war with Salvador.
1892. Prosecution of directors of Isthmian Canal.
1893. Honduras and Nicaragua at war (ended 1894).
1895. Civil war in Cuba; Guatemala-Mexican boundary settlement.
1897. Settlement of boundary dispute between Mexico and Great Britain.
1898. Cuba under American authority; (Spanish-American war).
1900. Costa Rica-Panama boundary settlement.
1902. Republic established in Cuba.
1903. Settlement of disputes between Guatemala and San Salvador.
Revolution and proclamation of republic in Panama.
1904. Panama canal rights acquired by U.S.A.
1905. Adjustment of financial obligations of Haiti undertaken by U.S.A.
1906. Civil war in Cuba; intervention and provisional government established by U.S.A.
1909. Reorganisation of republic in Cuba.
1911. Diaz resigns presidency of Mexico.
- Internal disorders are for the most part excluded.