South American Republics.
1864. Paraguayan troops invade Brazil; alliance of Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay against Paraguay.
1866. Chile-Bolivian boundary treaty.
1863–6. Wars of Peru and Chile against Spain; failure of Spanish operations.
1870. Final defeat of Paraguay (see 1864, above); constitution formulated.
1873. Argentine-Brazilian treaty.
1874. Secret agreement between Bolivia and Peru against Chilean encroachment.
1876. Brazilian troops finally withdrawn from Paraguay.
1879–83. Chilean wars against Peru and Bolivia; success of Chile; Bolivia cedes coast lands (1883), Peru cedes Tarapaca (1884).
1880. Buenos Ayres established as capital of Argentina (following dispute and insurrection).
1886. New Colombian constitution.
1888. Slavery abolislied in Brazil.
Dispute between Great Britain and Venezuela over gold-mining territories.
1889. Expulsion of the Emperor from Brazil; proclamation of republic. Colombia-Venezuelan boundary settlement.
1892. Civil war in Venezuela foilowed by dispute with Powers over claims by their subjects for losses.
1897. Restoration of diplomatic relations between Great Britain and Venezuela, suspended since 1887.
1899. Boundary arbitration between Chile and Argentina in Atacama and Patagonia.
British Guiana-Venezuelan boundary arbitration and settlement.
1900. Arbitration treaty between Argentina and Uruguay.
French Guiana-Brazilian boundary settlement.
1901. Colombia and Venezuela at war; defeat of Venezuelans.
1902. King Edward VII's arbitration on Chile-Argentine boundary.
1902–3. Britain and Germany and other Powers claim against Venezuela; Hague arbitration; (diplomatic relations with various Powers, however, were subsequently strained).
1903. Secession of Panama from Colombia. Argentine arbitration on Peru-Bolivian boundary (accepted, 1909); Chile-Brazilian dispute on territory of Acre settled by treaty.
1904. Arbitration on Eucador-Colombian boundary.
British Guiana-Brazilian boundary settlement.
1905. Colombian constitution modified.
Chile-Bolivian boundary treaty.
1908–9. Venezuelan action against Dutch minister; armed reprisals, arbitration and protocol of settlement.
1910. Opening of Trans-Andine tunnel. Protocol between Argentine and Uruguay for settlement of River Plate navigation questions.
1878. Understanding with Russia and refusal of relations with British, who invade Afghanistan.
1879. Gandamak treaty of peace; British occupation of Khaibar Pass and establishment of residency at Kabul.
Massacre of British at Kabul. March thither of Gen. Roberts.
1880. War continuing. Siege and relief of Kandahar; defeat of Afghans.
1884. Anglo-Afghan agreement against Russian advance; Anglo-Russian agreement.
1886. Joint boundary commission.
1893. British mission to Kabul.
1895. Afghan boundary commission; work completed.
1903. British commission on Persian-Afghan boundary question.
1863. Operations of imperialists under Col. Gordon against T'ai-ping revolutionaries.
1864. Nanking retaken by Gordon.
1870. Massacre of foreigners and native Christians at Tientsin.
1875. Accession of Emperor Kwang-su.
1876. Chifu convention with Great Britain.
1881. Treaty with Russia, consolidating Central Asian possessions.
1884. Fighting with France at Tonking; Chinese fleet destroyed at Fuchow.
1885. Peace concluded with France.
1894. War with Japan; victory of Japan.
1895. Peace concluded with Japan; cession of Liao-tung peninsula and Formosa.
1896. Settlement of Mekong valley boundary dispute.
1897. Kiaochau Bay ceded to Germany.
1898. Occupation of Port Arthur by Russia and of Wei-hai-wei by Great Britain.
Kwang-su's measures of reform crushed by Dowager-Empress; Kwang-su kept prisoner.
1900. Boxer risings; siege of Peking legations.
1901. Peace concluded with allied forces.
1903–4. British armed mission from India into Tibet; Lhasa entered; flight of Dalai Lama; treaty.
1908. Death of Kwang-su and of Dowager-Empress; accession of Hsuan Tung; Prince Chun regent.
- Internal disorders are for the most part excluded.