1909. Convention settling disputes with Japan in Manchuria and Korea.
1912. Abdication of Manchu dynasty; republic established; Yuan-Shihkai president.
1864. Combined naval demonstration of powers, owing to refusal of Japan to observe treaties.
1865. Treaties ratifled.
1668. Daimios insurrection; victory of Mikado.
1870–2 seqq. Introduction and development of European methods, etc. (first railway, 1872).
1875. New Constitution and Parliament.
1894–5. War with China.
1904–5. War with Russia; treaty of Portsmouth (U.S.A.)
1905. Anglo-Japanese alliance (renewed, 1911).
1912. Death of the Mikado; Yoshihito succeeds.
1895. Russo-Persian frontier commission.
1896. Assassination of Shah Nasr-ed-din; accession of Muzaffer-ed-din.
1902. Financial reform scheme with Belgian support.
1903. Commercial agreements with Russia and Great Britain.
1907. Death of Muzaffer-ed-din; accession of Shah Mahomed ali Mirza.
1908. Serious internal disturbances.
1909. Deposition of the Shah.
1911. Russian ultimatum; withdrawal of treasury gendarmerie from ex-Shah's property; dismissal of members of American commission.
1867. Treaty with France recognising French protectorate in Cambodia.
1874. Political constitution granted.
1893. French ultimatum and armed demonstration following encounter on the Mekong river; treaty concluded.
1904. Anglo-French agreement recognising sphere of influence in Siam.