silver coins are the half, quarter, and sixteenth (guerche or piastre) of a talari. Copper coins are the besa (= one-hundredth of a dollar) and the half and quarter guerche found only at Harrar. Various articles, however, are used as medium of exchange; bars of salt are regularly accepted as money all over the country, in two sizes, and at a fluctuating rate according to supply and cost of transport. Cartridges are also currency, although there is a dead letter edict against them; and in most places barter prevails.
The Abyssinian ounce weighs about 430 grains (the weight of the Maria Theresa dollar); a pound of ivory contains 12 ounces; of coffee, 18 ounces; the Abyssinian ferasla contains 371⁄2 lbs. av., or 50 lbs. Abyssinian (ivory). Grain measures are the kunna, 1⁄8 bushel; and the daula, 21⁄2 bushels. The mètre is largely used at Harar; native measures are the sinzer, 9 inches, and the kend (cubit), 20 inches. A kalad contains in some places 60 acres, in others 96.
Envoy Extraordinary Minister Plenipotentiary and Consul-General.—Capt. the Hon. W. G. Thesiger, D.S.O.
Consul at Adis Ababa.—Major C. H. M. Doughty-Wylie, C.M.G.
Vice-Consul at Harrar.—J. H. H. Dodds.
Consul for Western Abyssinia.—C. H. Walker.
Books of Reference concerning Abyssinia.
Foreign Office Reports, Annual Series. London.
Die Handels- und Verkehrsverhältnisse Abessiniens. Berlin, 1905.
Agreement between the United Kingdom, France, and Italy respecting Abyssinia, signed December 13, 1906. London, 1907.
Agreement between the United Kingdom, France, and Italy respecting the Importation of Arms and Ammunition into Abyssinia, signed December 13, 1906. London, 1907.
Beccari (C.) (Editor), Rerum Æthiopicarum Scriptores Occidentales inediti a saeculo XVI ad XIX. 5 vols. Rome, 1903–07.
Berkeley (G. E. H.), The Campaign of Adowa and the Rise of Menelik. London, 1902.
Blundell (H. Weld), A Journey through Abyssinia. Geographical Journal, vol. xv, 1900.
Borelli (J.), Ethiopie Méridionale (1885–88). Fol. Paris, 1890.
Bruce (James), Travels to discover the Sources of the Nile, 1768–73. 5 vols. Edinburgh, 1790.
Cufino (L.), La Via da Assab all'Etiopia Centrale pel Golima. Naples, 1904.
D'Abbadie (Antoine), Géodésie d'Ethiopie. Paris, 1860–73.—Géographie de l'Ethiopie. Paris. 1890.
Dehérain (H.); Etudes sur L'Afrique. Paris, 1904.
Fumagalli (G.), Bibliografia Etiopica. Milan, 1893.
Gleichen (Count), With the Mission to Menelik. London, 1898.
Gilmour (T. L.), Abyssinia: The Ethiopian Railway and the Powers. London, 1905.
Hayes (A. J.), The Sources of the Blue Nile. London, 1905.
Henz (W.), Am Hofe des Kaisers Menelek II. Leipzig, 1906.
Hertslet (Sir E.), The Map of Africa by Treaty. 2nd ed. Vol. I. London, 1896.
Holland (J. T.) and Hozier (H.), Record of the Exploration of Abyssinia. 2 vols. London, 1870.
Jennings (J. W.) and Addison (Ch.), With the Abyssinians in Somaliland. London, 1905.
Johnston (Sir Harry), History of the Colonisation of Africa. Cambridge, 1899.
Keltie (J. S.), The Partition of Africa. London, 1895.
Lauribar (P. de), Douze Ans en Abyssinie. Paris, 1898.
Maasaja (Cardinal), I miei Trentacinque Anni di Missione nell' Alta Etiopia. 10 vols. Milan, 1886–93.
Ortroz (F. Van), Conventions Internationales concernant l'Afrique. Brussels, 1898.
Portal (Sir G. H.), My Mission to Abyssinia. London, 1892.
Rassam (Hormuzd), Narrative of the British Mission to Theodore, King of Abyssinia. 2 vols. London, 1869.
Reclus, Universal Geography. Vol. X.
Rohlfs (G.), Meine Mission nach Abessinien, &c. , 1880–81. Leipzig, 1883.
Roux (Hugues le), Ménélik et Nous. Paris, 1901.
Skinner (R. P.), Abyssinia of To-Day. London, 1906.
Vannutelli (L.), and Citerni (C.), Seconda Spedizione Bòttego. Milan, 1899.
Vivian (H.), Abyssinia. London, 1001.
Wellby (M. S.), 'Twixt Sirdar and Menelik. London, 1901.Wylde, Modern Abyssinia. London. 1900.