Page:The American Indian.djvu/341

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283
LINGUISTIC CLASSIFICATION

would express genetic relationships. Now, the conception of a linguistic stock is a group of languages all the members of which have a common ancestor, and between whom it is possible to establish degrees of relationship. Hence, the moment we identify a language as belonging to a definite stock, we automatically assert its genetic relationship. In this sense, the classification of the linguistic characters of man is superior to the present classification of his cultural characters.

We have now a considerable number of specialists in North American languages, but the task before them is so great that the investigations of the several stocks have not progressed far enough to make possible a comprehensive statement of the whole subject. In scarcely a single case are we able to designate the type tongue for a stock or to indicate the historical relationships of its divisions. All this is for the future. At present, the refinement of classification seems to be the chief interest. As we have stated, even the stock designation is somewhat arbitrary, for greater familiarity with these languages has brought to light new similarities between what have heretofore been regarded as distinct stocks. For instance, the


List of Stocks for Fig. 85

1. Algonquian
2. Athapascan
3. Attacapan
4. Beothukan
5. Caddoan
6. Chimakuan
7. Chimarikan
8. Chimmesyan
9. Chinookan
10. Chitimachan
11. Chumashan
12. Coahuiltecan
13. Costanoan
14. Eskimauan
15. Esselenian
16. Haida
17. Iroquoian
18. Kalapooian
19. Karankawa

20. Keresan
21. Kiowan
22. Klamath
23. Kusan
24. Kutenai
25. Maidu
26. Moquelumnan
27. Muskhogean
28. Piman
29. Pomo
30. Quoratean
31. Salinan
32. Salishan
33. Shahaptin
34. Shastan
35. Shoshonean
36. Siouan
37. Siuslaw
38. Takelma

39. Tanoan
40. Timucuan
41. Tlingit
42. Tonkawa
43. Tunican
44. Uchean
45. Waiilatpuan
46. Wakashan
47. Washoan
48. Weitspekan
49. Wintun
50. Wishoskan
51. Yakona
52. Yanan
53. Yokuts
54. Yukian
55. Yuman
56. Zuñian