known now as "holeing." The operation of piercing pamphlets for the purpose of stitching.
Stabbing machine.—A small machine used for making the holes through the backs of pamphlets.
Standing press.—A fixed heavy press with a perpendicular screw over the centre.
Start.—When any of the leaves are not properly secured in the back, and they project beyond the others, they are said to have started. When the back has been broken by forcing the leaves they start.
Stiffener.—A thin mill-board used for various purposes.
Stitching.—The operation of passing the thread through a pamphlet for the purpose of securing the sheets together.
Straight-edge.—A small board having one edge perfectly straight.
Stops.—Small circular tools, adapted to "stop" a fillet when it intersects at right angles; used to save the time mitring would occupy.
Tenon saw.—A small saw used by bookbinders for sawing the books for sewing. More strictly speaking a carpenter's tool.
Title.—The space between the bands upon which the lettering is placed. The leaf in the beginning of a book describing the subject.
Tools.—Applied particularly to the handstamps and tools used in finishing.
Trimming.—Shaving the rough edge of the leaves of a book that is not to be cut.
Trindle.—A thin strip of wood or iron.
Turning-up.—The process of cutting the foredge in such a manner as to throw the round out of the back until the edge is cut. All books that are cut in boards have a pair of trindles thrust between the boards and across the back to assist the operation.
Tying-up.—The tying of a volume after the cover has been drawn on, so as to make the leather adhere better to the sides of the bands; also for setting the head-band.
Type.—Metal letters used in printing and lettering.
Type-holder.—An instrument for holding the type when used for lettering.
Varnish.—Used as a protection to the glaire when polished on the covers of books.
Whipping.—Another term for overcasting, but when longer stitches are made.
Witness.—When a volume is cut so as to show that it has not been so cut down, but that some of the leaves have still rough edges. These uncut leaves are called "Witness" (see Proof).
Wrinkle.—The uneven surface in a volume, caused by not being properly pressed or by dampness, also caused by improper backing.