them should be carefully selected and the cheaper kinds eschewed, the bronze in a short time going black.
Coloured Paste Paper.—This kind the binder, can easily make for himself. Some colour should be mixed with paste and a little soap, until it is a little thicker than cream. It should then be spread upon two sheets of paper with a paste brush. The sheets must then be laid together with their coloured surfaces facing each other, and when separated they will have a curious wavy pattern on them. The paper should then be hung up to dry on a string stretched across the room, and when dry glazed with a hot iron. A great deal of it is used in Germany for covering books. Green, reds, and blues have a very good effect.
There are many other kinds of paper that may be used, but the above five different varieties will give a very good idea and serve as points to work from. The many bookbinders' material dealers send out pattern books, and in them some hundreds of patterns are to be found.
Before leaving the subject of ends, it may be as well to mention that morocco, calf, russia, silk, etc., are often used on whole bound work; these must, however, be placed in the book when has been covered.
After having decided upon what kind of paper is to be used, two pieces are cut and folded to the size of the book, leaving them a trifle larger, especially if the book has been already cut. Two pieces of white paper must be prepared in the same way. Having them ready, a white paper is laid down, folded, on a pasting board (any old mill-board kept for this purpose), and pasted with moderately thin paste very evenly; the two fancy papers are laid on the top quite even with the back or folded edge; the top fancy paper is now to be pasted, and the other white laid on that: they must now be taken from the board, and after a squeeze in the press between pressing boards, taken out, and hung up separately to dry. This will cause one half of the white