Page:The Chartist Movement.djvu/20

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THE CHARTIST MOVEMENT
of Lancashire and the woollen-weavers of Yorkshire—The stockingers and the hosiery trade in the Midlands—Bagmen and frame-rents—Quarrying and mining—The butty and the gang system—The employment of women and children—Want of organisation and care for the welfare of the new industrial population—The social and economic background of Chartism.

CHAPTER III
The Rise of Anti-Capitalist Economics and Social Revolutionary Theory 28-51
Effects of the French Revolution and of the Industrial Revolution on English political and social ideas—Social dislocation resulting from Industrial Revolution—Movement and enterprise replace security as basis of economic life—Practical grievances of the wage-earners—Beginnings of socialistic literature—Three schools of early socialism—The agrarians and their revolt against enclosures—Doctrine of natural right to the land—Thomas Spence—William Ogilvie—Thomas Paine—The anti-capitalistic critics of the classical economists—Charles Hall as the link between the first and second schools—Influence of David Ricardo—His doctrine that Labour is the source of value—Its development by Thomas Hodgskin to claim for Labour the whole produce of Industry—The theoretical Communists—Robert Owen—William Thompson and J. P. Bray—The new Trades Unionism and Robert Owen—The Grand National Consolidated Trades Union—Its failure—The London group of Labour leaders—Special position of the London artisans—Their reaction from orthodox Owenism and its results—The disillusion of the Reform Bill.

CHAPTER IV
The London Working Men's Association and the People's Charter (1836-1839) 52-77
Failure of the earlier working men's societies in London The agitation in favour of unstamped newspapers—Its partial triumph in 1836—The leaders in the agitation—Francis Place—William Lovett—Henry Hetherington—James Watson—John Cleave—The same men found the London Working Men's Association—Two accounts of its origin—Part played by Lovett in it—Its objects, membership, and proceedings— Its publications, especially The