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of his gains ; and it will do immense good by making thousands realize that Christianity, to be worth having, must be penetrated with the ethical passion and devoted to practical ministries of love.
The purpose of Mr. Oilman is not to give a history of socialism, though he weaves the essential facts of its various movements into the texture of his discussion. He does not attempt to expound or refute its principles so much as to bring them into comparison with the American spirit, and in this indirect way he shows how far the spirit of socialism may be welcomed and also how far the socialistic programme conflicts with what is most precious and fundamental in our institutions. The earlier chapters of his book contain a very clear and admirable discussion of the factors at work in American society, the part played by individualism and the part played by corporate and governmental methods. These chapters may well be commended in the strongest terms as a most valuable statement of what constitutes our manifest destiny as a nation, as well as a summary of what is highest in American citizenship.
The author shows how incompatible American institutions are with the socialistic programme, and yet he constantly takes issue with Mr. Herbert Spencer, whom he criticises in a very forcible manner. Mr. Gilman, in his discussion of the functions of the State, follows, it seems to me, the path of the golden mean : the government must be an opportunist, doing whatever is needed by the individual that the individual cannot well do for himself ; and yet the individual must be a living cell in a fluent organism rather than a cog in a mere machine. The two chapters on "The Industrial Future" and "The Way to Utopia" contain a large amount of clear thought and sober judgment which will do much to extend right views in these directions. From the author of "Profit Sharing " we naturally expect something more than an allusion to this subject ; and we are not disappointed.
This work will probably displease many persons, especially the disciples of Mr. Bellamy. Mr. Gilman holds "Looking Backward" up to the light, and shows without much trouble, but better than is done anywhere else, what a frail and gauzy fabric it really is. The severe critic could easily find some fault, here and there, with Mr. Oilman's pages, but I shall not attempt to criticise in detail or describe his work at greater length. I wish rather to commend it heartily as a very able discussion of the American spirit and the relation of socialism to our institutions. Almost every page has words of wisdom which make the path of the American citizen a little plainer. Mr. Gladden has produced a very helpful book for the people who will constitute the majority of his readers. He has not written for scholars or specialists ; but as in his former book, "Applied Christianity," he here tries to carry the authority of Christianity over into social affairs, while he also tries to interest Christians more fully in social problems. He endeavors to point out what changes the application of the Christian Law ought to make in the use of property, the holding of land ; upon industrial organizations, and upon competition in general. His pages stir us to enthusiasm for nobler policies in business, where his arguments seem inconclusive ; his earnestness imparts a moral fervor, where his theories sometimes fail to win the assent of reason. Everyone must join with him in the desire that love and justice gain new power in the shop and on the market. But some of his statements, in their lack of scientific precision and in their intensity of expression, remind us that we are listening to an oration from the pulpit rather than the calm deliverance of a specialist and a philosopher. Especially to be deplored is the loose and expansive way in which the term Christian is used. Mr. Gladden is constantly asking : What does Christian Ethics demand here? and what does Christian Law make necessary here? And yet these terms are nowhere defined ; they are used with little reference to their primitive meaning ; and even the right of Christianity to this supremacy is nowhere established. It seems to me that he construes the Christian Law very much to suit himself (always, however, for noble things), putting into it a great deal that did not belong to original Christianity,—a great deal that is grandly human rather than specifically Christian. In this way the content of Christianity is enlarged and enriched, and people are thus led to accept many new things as Christian and authoritative, upon the supposition that they were a part of original Christianity. But it may well be doubted whether this course is justified by history, or is calculated to give social science the firmest basis, or motives of helpfulness the very greatest and most enduring power. However, the book is the word of an earnest man, and it will do good wherever read.
Joseph Henry Crocker.