modified State aid hitherto accorded to all the denominations was abolished in 1851. Governor Gawler's apportionment, and Governor Robe's subsequent grant, of a site for an Anglican cathedral in the Victoria Square reserve of Adelaide, was disputed by the local authorities, and declared by the local courts to be invalid, on the ground that, though a governor could legally make grants of waste lands, he could not alienate public reserves. On appeal this judgment was affirmed by the Privy Council, and at a later date the last vestige of Anglican precedency was swept away by another decision of the appellate tribunal, declaring the letters patent granted by the Crown to the early colonial bishops, including the Bishop of Adelaide, to be ultra vires, and invalid in all cases where issued subsequent to the passing of the Act of 1842, which gave a representative legislature to New South Wales. The territorial and ecclesiastical jurisdiction conferred on him under the royal letters patent of June 1847 having thus vanished into thin air, Bishop Short set himself to work to create a voluntary organisation which should replace the edifice of privilege which had thus been cut away from beneath his feet. In this he was completely successful, and as his sturdy and straightforward character became understood, he gradually obtained a strong hold on the respect and regard of the people of South Australia. His action was not always popular, as in the case of his refusal to allow the Rev. Thomas Binney to preach in the Church of England churches within his diocese; whilst his co-operation with the Roman Catholics in opposing the secular system of State education was also a rock of offence. In other directions, where he considered no vital principle to be involved, he disarmed hostility by timely compromises, as in the case of the exclusive right to the private entrée at the Governor's levees, which he had long enjoyed. When this privilege was impugned in the Assembly, Bishop Short proposed its extension to the heads of the other denominations in the colony, and thus settled a matter which Sir James Fergusson, the then Governor, was inclined to fight out, on the ground that Bishop Short's position was differentiated from that of the ministers of other sects by his possession of the Queen's letters patent. When the University of Adelaide was established, in 1872, Bishop Short was appointed the first Vice-chancellor, and in 1876 he succeeded Sir R. D. Hanson as Chancellor. Bishop Short attended the first General Synod of the bishops of Australia and Tasmania, held in Sydney in 1872, and was present at the Lambeth Conference in 1878. Having admitted the invalidity of the letters patent issued in his own favour, Bishop Short was strongly opposed to the action of Bishop Barker in claiming the primacy of Australia on the strength of the letters patent given him in 1854. At the same time he supported his recognition as Metropolitan by the common consent of the several Australian and Tasmanian dioceses. In the result the latter view triumphed. Having premonitions of heart disease, Bishop Short resigned his see in Nov. 1881, and finally left the colony in Jan. 1882. In November he assisted at the consecration of his successor. Dr. Kennion, in Westminster Abbey, and died at Eastbourne on Oct. 5th, 1883.
Shortland, Lieutenant Willoughby, R.N., sometime acting Governor of New Zealand, came of a Devonshire family, and entered the royal navy. In 1839 he accompanied Captain Hobson, the first Governor of New Zealand—on one of whose ships he had been a lieutenant—to that colony, which had not then been annexed by England. Landing at Auckland in Jan. 1840, the British sovereignty was formally proclaimed, and lieutenant Shortland appointed Colonial Secretary. In this capacity he was sent in June of the same year to Port Nicholson (Wellington) with a proclamation by the Governor dissolving the association which the settlers had formed for their mutual protection, and commanding them to recognise his own authority as the Queen's representative. The Port Nicholson settlers disclaimed all notions of disloyalty, and received Lieutenant Shortland—who does not appear to have been formally appointed Colonial Secretary till May 1841—with an effusion which dissipated all doubts in regard to their attitude. He acted for some months as police magistrate at Port Nicholson. On the death of Captain Hobson in Sept. 1842; Lieutenant Shortland assumed the reins and acted as administrator of the government of New