Page:U.S. Department of the Interior Annual Report 1880.djvu/80
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR.
Timothy and clover hay of good quality and large growth are produced ; fruit trees and vines grow rapidly and produce abundantly.
The extension of the lines of government survey in certain portions of the Territory is urged, as immigrants are slow to settle upon and improve lands, however desirable, to which they cannot initiate claims under the pre-emption or homestead laws.
Stock raising is becoming one of the considerable industries of the Territory, attention being turned chiefly to cattle, though the climate and soil are well adapted to sheep and wool growing. It is estimated that not less than 40,000 head of cattle have, during the past season, been sold and driven from the Territory, at an average of about $12.50 per head.
The mineral-resources of the Territory constitute its chief interest, and the one upon which all other interests largely depend.
Gold and silver in paying quantities were discovered within its limits as long ago as 1852, ten years prior to the formation of the Territory, but the mines were, to some extent, abandoned for those more recently discovered in localities where prospecting and mining could be carried on with less danger from hostile Indians. More recently, however, this danger having been removed, important discoveries have been made, and the industry has revived until now there is scarcely a county in the Territory that does not contain one or more mining camps or towns.
In addition to gold, silver, lead, copper, and other metals and ores, coal beds and rich deposits of lire and pottery clay of the finest quality have been found. Since the discovery of gold and silver in the Territory its mines have contributed to the material wealth of the country not less than $75,000,000.
The relations with the Indians have, during the past year, been very satisfactory. There have been no disturbances, and no depredations have been committed by them, the people having enjoyed unusual security, even in the localities most exposed to danger. Although since the Nez Perce and Bannock wars the reservation Indians have remained more generally upon their reservations, yet large parties of them almost constantly roam over the Territory hunting, fishing, and begging. The visits of these roaming parties naturally tend to create a feeling of uneasiness in the minds of the settlers, especially in remote and isolated settlements.
The feeling of insecurity thus caused is liable to result in the organization of the settlers to drive the Indians away, and from such collisions often commence bloody and devastating Indian wars.
Another question presents itself for consideration. Long before the Fort Hall Reservation was set apart for the Bannock Indians there were numerous settlers upon portions of the territory selected who still remain within the bounds of the reservation, which fact is liable to cause trouble. The governor suggests that these settlers should be paid for