PUBLIC LAW 100-463—OCT. 1, 1988
102 STAT. 2270-49
(c) Not less than 50 per centum of the funds necessary to carry out this section shall be derived from the amounts available for the University Research Initiative Program in "Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation, Defense Agencies", and the balance necessary shall be derived from amounts available for Defense Research Sciences under title IV of this Act. SEC. 8143. Of the amounts available for obligation for research, development, test, and evaluation, no more than $2,500,000 shall be made available in equal amounts to the Army and the Air Force for the testing and evaluation of low-profile antenna systems for ground level communications: Provided, That whatever total amount made available by this section shall only be available if it is matched on an equal basis by any industrial participant in the testing and evaluation: Provided further. That the Secretary of the Army and the Secretary of the Air Force shall report the result of these tests and evaluation to the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and House of Representatives by June 30, 1989. SEC. 8144. (a) The Congress finds that— (1) the armed forces of the Soviet Union have waged a brutal war of conquest against the people of Afghanistan for 8 years; (2) foreign correspondents attempting to cover the war in Afghanistan have always been subject to extreme danger; (3) the danger to foreign correspondents became even greater in 1984 when the Soviet Ambassador to Pakistan explicitly threatened foreign journalists entering Afghanistan in the company of the Afghan resistance, known as the mujaheddin; (4) on September 19, 1985, Charles E. Thornton, a medical reporter for the Arizona Republic, was killed by Soviet troops while preparing a story about volunteer doctors in Afghanistan; (5) on October 9, 1987, Lee Shapiro, of North Bergen, New Jersey, and Jim Lindelof, of California, were ambushed and murdered by Soviet troops while filming a documentary on the war in Afghanistan; (6) the statements of Abdul Malik, the Afghan interpreter and guide who accompanied Lee Shapiro and Jim Lindelof and who witnessed their deaths, demonstrate that the two Americans were straffed by helicopter gunships of the Soviet Union and shot by Soviet soldiers who then confiscated their equipment and film; and (7) Charles E. Thornton, Lee Shapiro, and Jim Lindelof displayed great courage by facing the perils of war and the lethal threat directed against correspondents and ultimately gave their lives to inform the world of the struggle for liberty taking place in Afghanistan. (b) It is the sense of the Congress that the President should posthumously award the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Charles E. Thornton, Lee Shapiro, and Jim Lindelof in honor of their brave efforts to document the Afghan struggle for freedom. TITLE IX—ASSISTANCE FOR THE NICARAGUAN RESISTANCE SEC. 9001. POLICY.
It is the policy of the United States to advance peace and democracy in Central America and to protect American security interests in the region. In pursuing that policy it is the objective of the United
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Charles E. Thornton. Lee Shapiro. Jim Lindelof.
Decorations, medals, awards.