PUBLIC LAW 103-272—JULY 5, 1994 108 STAT. 1117 the Government and the government of a foreign country are parties if the agreement— (1) is consistent with the goals for international aviation policy of section 40101(e) of this title; and (2) provides for the exchange of rights or benefits of similar magnitude. (c) PROOF. —The Comptroller General shall allow the expenditure of an appropriation for transportation in violation of this section only when satisfactory proof is presented showing the necessity for the transportation. (d) TRANSPORTATION BY FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS. — Notwithstanding subsections (a) and (c) of this section, any amount appropriated to the Secretary of State, the Director of the United States Information Agency, the Director of the United States International Development Cooperation.!\gency, or the Director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency may be used to pay for the transportation of an officer or employee of the Department of State or one of those agencies, a dependent of the officer or employee, and accompanying baggage, by a foreign air carrier when the transportation is between 2 places outside the United States. (e) RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER LAWS. —This section does not affect the application of the antidiscrimination provisions of this part. §40119. Security and research and development activities (a) GENERAL REQUIREMENTS.— The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall conduct research (including behavioral research) and development activities appropriate to develop, modify, test, and evaluate a system, procedure, facility, or device to protect passengers and property against acts of criminal violence and aircraft piracy. (b) DISCLOSURE.— (1) Notwithstanding section 552 of title 5, Regulations, the Administrator shall prescribe regulations prohibiting disclosure of information obtained or developed in carrying out security or research and development activities under section 44501(a) or (c), 44502(a)(1) or (3), (b), or (c), 44504, 44505, 44507, 44508, 44511, 44512, 44513, 44901, 44903(a), (b), (c), or (e), 44905, 44912, 44935, 44936, or 44938(a) or (b) of this title if the Administrator decides disclosing the information would— (A) be an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy; (B) reveal a trade secret or privileged or confidential commercial or financial information; or (C) be detrimental to the safety of passengers in air transportation. (2) Paragraph (1) of this subsection does not authorize information to be withheld from a committee of Congress authorized to have the information. (c) TRANSFERS OF DUTIES AND POWERS PROHIBITED.— Except as otherwise provided by law, the Administrator may not transfer a duty or power under this section to another department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government. § 40120. Relationship to other laws (a) NONAPPLICATION.— Except as provided in the International Navigational Rules Act of 1977 (33 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.), the navigation and shipping laws of the United States and the rules for the prevention of collisions do not apply to aircraft or to the navigation of vessels related to those aircraft.