Page:United States Statutes at Large Volume 92 Part 2.djvu/200
92 STAT. 1480
PUBLIC LAW 95-474—OCT. 17, 1978 "(5) demonstrates proficiency in the use of electronic aids to navigation; "(6) maintains adequate knowledge of the waters to be navigated and knowledge of regulations for the prevention of collisions in such waters; "(7) has sufficient experience, as determined by the Secretary, to evidence his ability to handle any vessel of the type and size which he may be authorized to pilot; and " (8) meets any other requirement which the Secretary considers reasonable and necessary. "(c) No Federal license to pilot a steam vessel shall be valid for a term longer than five years. Upon expiration of any such license, the holder may reapply for an additional term and may be reissued a license if he meets the requirements specified under subsection (b) of this section.".
SEC. 5. VESSELS CARRYING CERTAIN CARGOES IN BULK.
Section 4417a of the Revised Statutes of the United States, as amended (46 U.S.C. 391a), is further amended to read as follows: SEC. 4417a. (1) STATEMENT OF POLICY.—The Congress hereby finds and declares— "(A) that the carriage by vessels of certain cargoes in bulk or in residue creates substantial hazards to life, property, the navigable waters of the United States (including the quality thereof) and the resources contained therein and to the adjoining land, including but not limited to fish, shellfish, and wildlife, marine and coastal ecosystems, and recreational and scenic values; "(B) that existing standards for the design, construction, alteration, repair, maintenance, operation, equipping, personnel qualification, and manning of all such vessels which use any port or place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States or which operate in the navigable waters of the United States must be more stringent and comprehensive for the mitigation of the hazards to life, property, and the marine environment; "(C) that existing international standards for inspection and enforcement are incomplete, that those international standards that are in existence are often left unenforced by some flag states, and that there is a need to prevent substandard vessels from using any port or place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States or from operating in the navigable waters of the United States, for the mitigation of the hazards to life, property, or the marine environment; "(D) that standards developed through regulations shall incorporate the best available technology and shall be required unless clearly shown to create an undue economic impact which is not outweighed by the benefits to navigation and vessel safety or protection of the marine environment; " (E) that standards developed through regulations shall not impede or interfere with the right of innocent passage or any legitimate use of the high seas in accordance with recognized principles of international law; and " (F) that the United States should continue to actively support and encourage efforts to obtain international agreements concerning navigation and vessel safety and protection of the marine environment.