Philosophical Transactions/Volume 1/Index

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Two Years,1665 and 1666, beginning March 6. 1665.
and ending with February 1666; abbreviated in an

Alphabetical Table:

And also afterwards Digested into a more


In the Table, the first Figure signifies the Number of the Tracts: the second, the Page, as it is remarked in the same.


Agriculture, Heads of Inquiries concerning, num. 5. pag. 91.

Air. The weight of it in all changes, by wind, weather, or whatever other influence observable by a standing Mercurial Balance, call'd a Baroscope, hinted in reference to M. Hook: Micrography, n. 2. p. 31. applied to particulars by Dr. Beale, 9. 153. with additions, 10. 163. described with observables relating moan Earth-quake about Oxford by Dr. Wallis, 10. 161. Mr. Boyle’s remarks on the same, 11. 181. The Wheel-Baroscope improved and delineated by M. Hook, 13. 213. Another Balance of the Air contriv'd by M. Boyle, and call'd Statical, by which the former may be exactly stated and examin'd for many particular applications, 14. 231

Anatome, see Flesh, Blood, Animals, 'Lungs, Petrification, Taste; item, Steno, Graef, Bellinue, Redi, in the Liste of Books.

Animals; one may live by the blood of another, the Whole mass of his own blood being drawn out, and the blood of another infus'd in the mean time, 20. 353. See Bloods

Transfusion. The Generation and Functions of Animals deduced by Mechanical principles, without recourse to a substantial form, 18. 325. See Honor. Fabri. & n. 20. p. 365. See also Guarini.

Artificial Instruments or Engins. To weigh Air, see Baroscope, or rather Air. To discern drought or moisture of the Air, see Hygroscope. n. 2. p. 31. appliable in the observation of Tydes, 17. 300. Thermometers, to measure degrees of hear and cold, 2. 31. described, 10. 166. applied in the examination of Tydes, 17. 300. An Instrument for graduating Thermometers, to make them Standards of heat and cold, 2. 31. A new Engine for grinding any Optick Glasses of a Sphærical figure. 2. 31. To measure the Refractions of Liquors of all kinds, for establishing the Laws of Refraction, 2. 32. To break the hardest Rocks in Mines, 5. 82. To try for fresh waters at the bottom of the Seas, 9. 147. To find the greatest depths in the Sea, 9. 147. The Engin for fetching up fresh water defended by Explication, 13. 228. Huge Wheels, and other Engins for Mines, 2. 23. By the fall of water to blow wind, as with Bellows, 2. 25.

Astronomical Remarks of a New Star seen by Hevelius in Pectore Cygni, which he supposeth to be the same, which Kepler saw A. 1661. and continued until 1602. and was not seen again till 1661. and then almost alwayes hiding it self till 24. Nov. 1666. That, seen by Kepler was of the third magnitude; this now, cf the sixth or seventh. &. Whether it changes place and magnitude, 19. 349. The Scheme, 21. 372. A New Star in Colio Ceti, observ'd from 1638. to 1664, 1665, 1666. with its vicissitudes and periods, and causes of change, open'd by Bullialdus; who conceives the bigger part cf that round body to be obscure, and the whole to turn about its own Center, 21. 382. Another New Star call'd Nebulosa in Cingulo Andromedæ, seen when the Comet appear'd 1665. observ'd by the said Bulliadus to appear and disappear by turns, ibid. 383. A method for observing the Eclipses of the Moon, free from the common Inconveniences, by M Rook, 22. 387.


BAroscope. See Air and Artificial Instruments.

Blood. The new Operation of Transfusing blood into the veins, out cf one Animal into another; with considerations upon it, 20. 353. The first Rise of this Invention, 7. 208. The Success, 19. 351. Proprosals and Queries, for the improvement of this Experiment, by M. Boyle, 22. 385, 386.

Little Blood-letting in China, 14. 249. Blood found in some mens veins like Milk, or of the colour of Milk, 6. 100. again p. 117. 118. and again 8. 139.

A Bolus in Hungary good as Bole Armenick, 1. 11.

The Bononian Stone, see Light or Stone, 21, 375.

Books abbreviated, or recited:

Laur. Bellinus de Gustûs Organo novissimé deprehenso, 20. 366. abbrev.

Gerh. Blasu Anatome Medullæ Spinalis & Nervorum inde procedentium, abbrev. n. 22.

Mr. Boyle of Thermometers and History of Cold, abbrev. 1. 8. more 3. 16.

—— His Hydrostatical Paradoxes abbrev. 8. 145. more largely 10. 173.

—— His Origin of Forms and Qualities, 8. 145. abbreviated 11. 191.

Monsieur de Bourges his Relation of the Bishop cf Beryte his Voyages in Turky, Persia, India, abbrev. 18. 314.

Bulliadi Monita due, abbrev. 21. 381. See sup. á Astronomy.

Des Cartes his Third Volume of Letters, n. 22.

De la Chambre's Causes of the inundation of the Nile, abbr. 14. 151.

Cordemoy of the difference of Bodies'and Souls, or Spirits, and their operation upon one another, abbrev. 17. 306.

Euclidis Elementa Geometrica novo ordine demonstrata, 15. 161.

Hon. Fabri Sec. Jes. Tract. duo 1. de Plantis & Gener. Animalium. 2. de Homine; abbreviated, 18. 315.

Felibien of the moll excellent Paintings, 21. 383.

Catalogue of Fermats Writings, and his character, 1. 15.

De Graeff, de succi Pancreatici natura & usu, abbrcv. 10. 178.

Guarini Placira Philosophica, abbreviated, 20. 365.

Hevelius'. Prodromus Cometicus, abbrev. 6. 104. His Descriptio Cometica cum Mantissa, abbrev. 17. 301.

Hobbes de Principiis & Ratione Geometrarum, described, 14. 193. Animadverted upon by Dr. Wallis, 16. 289.

Hooks Micrographical and Telescopical Observations, Philosophical Instruments and Inventions, abbr. 2. 29.

Kircher's Mundus Subterraneus, abbrev. 6. 109.

Lower's Vindication of Dr. Willis de Febribus, 4. 77.

Meret's Pinax Rerum Naturalium Britannicarum, continens Vegetabilia, Animalia & Fossilia, in hac insula reperta, inchoatus; abbr. 20. 364.

Parker's Tentamina Physico Theologica, abbrev. 18. 324.

Redi an Italian Philosopher, cf Vipers, abbrev. 9. 160.

Ricciolo's Astronomia Reformata, Volumen quartum abbrev. n. 22.

Smith of K. Solomon's Pourtraicture of Old Age, 14. 254.

Stetonis de Musculis & Glandulis observationum Specimen; cum duabus Epistolis Anatomicis; abbrev. 10. 176.

Sydenhami Methodus, Curandi Febras, abbrev. 12. 210.

Thevenot's Relation of curious Voyages, with a Geographical description of China, abbr. 14. 248.

The English Vineyard vindicated, 15. 262.

Isaac Vossius de Origine Nili, abbreviated, 17. 304.

Vlug-Beig great Grand-child to the famous Tamerlane, his Catalogue of fix't Stars, with their Longitudes, Latitudes, and Magnitudes, taken at Samarcand, A. 1437. Translated out of a Persian M.S. by M. Hyde, Keeper of the Bodlejan Library, 8. 145.

The Burning Concave of M. de Vilette in Lyons, burning and melting any matter (very few excepted.) What, and How, and at what distance. The proportion; and compared with other rare burning Concaves, 6. 96.


IN China very ancient Books found of the nature and vertues of Herbs, Trees and Stones, 14. 249.

The Root there called Genseng, very restorative and cordial, recovering agonizing persons, sold there each pound for three pounds of silver, 14. 249.

China Dishes how made there, ibid.

A way found in Europe to make China-Dishes, 7. 127.

Chymists in China pretend to make Gold, and promise Immortality, 14. 149.

Cold, see M. Boyles History, abbrev. More Inquiries, and some answers touching Cold, 19. 344. How Cold may be produced in hottest Summers by Sal Armeniack, discovered by M. Boyle, 15. 255. Some suggestions for remedies against Cold, by D. Beale, 21. 379.

Comets. The motions of the Comet of Decemb. 1664. predicted, 1. 3. Cassini concurrs; 2. 17. Auzout, who first predicted the motion, refiects upon Cassini, 2. 18. and predicts the motions of the second Comet of March, April 1665. n. 3. 36.

Controversies and Discourses, some at large, concerning Comets, n. 1. p. 3. n. 2. p. 17, 18. n. 3. p. 36. n. 6 p. 104. n. 9. p. 150. n. 17. p. 301. Many considerables abbreviated, n. 6. p. 104. n. 17. p. 301.


DAmps in Mines pernicious, 3. 44. and how killing, ibid.

Directions for Seamen bound for far Voyages, by M. Rook, 8. 140. Mr. Boyles Inquiries, 18. 315.

Philosophical Directions or Inquiries for such as Travel into Turky, 20. 360.

Directions, or general Heads for a natural History of a Countrey, by M. Boyle, 11. 186.

Directions or Inquiries concerning Mines, by the same, 19. 330.

Diamonds where, and how the fairest are discover'd, 18. 317.


THe Earthquake about Oxford, Anno 1665. described by D. Wallis, 10. 181. by M. Boyle, 11. 179. noting the Concomitants thereof by Barascope and Thermomater.

The Earth's Diurnal motion prov'd by the motion of the Comets, 1. 6. & 7. especially by the flow motion of the second Comet, 3. 39. See M. Auzout, confirm'd by M. Hevelius, 6. 105. confirm'd by by the Tydes at Sea, 16. 265.

The Eclipse of June 22. 1666. accurately observ'd at London, 17. 245. at Madrid, ibid. at Paris, 17. 146. at Dantzick, drawn in accurate Cuts, n. 19. 347. n. 21. p. 369.

Elephants: How to escape, or to combat with them, 18. 328.

Eeles discover'd under Banks in Hoar-Frosts, by the Greens of the Banks approaching, 18. 383.


THe Fleshy parts of the Body which are usually reputed, and do seem void of Vessels, are argued to be full of Vessels, by D. King, 18. 316.

Friction and sometimes Touch, how sanative, by several Examples, 12. 206.

Frictions much used by Physicians in China with good success, 14. 249.


GEometricians censur'd by M. Hobbs, 14. 153. defended by D. Wallis, 16. 289.

The method of teaching Geometry reform'd, 15. 26I. See Euclidis Elementa novo ordine, among the Books.


INquiries, see Directions, suprá.

Ice and Snow how»to be preserv'd in Chasse, and how Snow-houses are made in Livorn, 8. 139.

Insects, in swarms pernicious in some Countries; the cause of them, and what Remedies, 8. 139. some Insects, commonly believed poysonous, not so, by M. Fairfax, n. 22.

To find the Julian period by a new and easie way, 18. 324.

Jupiter's Rotation by degrees discover'd in England and Italy, n. 1, p. 3. n. 4. p. 75. n. 8. p. 143. n. 9. p. 173. n. 12. p. 209. n. 14. p. 245.


KErmes, how gather'd and used for Coloration, describ'd with many considerables, 20. 362.


LIght, to examine what figure or celerity of motion begetteth or increaseth Light or Flame in some Bodies, by D. Beale, 13. p. 226. Shining Worms found in Oysters, 12. 203. The Bononian Stone duly prepar'd continues light once imbibed above any other substance yet known amongst us, 21. 375. The loss of the way of preparing the same for shining, feared, ibid.

Longitudes at Sea, how to be ascertain'd by Pendulum-Watches, 1. 13.

Lungs and Windpipes in Sheep and Oxen strangely stopd with Hand-Balls of Grass, 6. 100.


MArbles, that a liquor may be made to color them, piercing into them, 7. 125.

Mars, by what steps and degrees of diligence discover'd to be turbinated, both in England and Italy. Compare n. 10. p. 198. and n. 14. 239, 242. see the Schemes there.

May-dew examin'd by various Experiments, by M. Henshaw, 3. 33.

Mechanical Principles in a Geometrical method, explicating the nature or operation of Plants, Animals, 8. 325.

Medecins in China consist for the most part of Simples Decoctions, Cauteries, Frictions, without the use of Blood-letting, 14, 249. The Physicians there, commended for speedy Cares; and easie, ibid.

Mediterranean Sea, whether it may be join'd with the Ocean, debated, 3. 41.

Micrography epitomized, 2. 27. M. Auzout's Objections to a part of it; vid. the new way of grinding Spherical Glasses by a Turn-lash, 4. 57. M. Hooks answer thereunto, 4. 64. both at large.

Mercury-Mines in Friuli, and the way of getting it out of the earth, 2. 21.

Mineral Inquiries, see Directions, Engins, Artificial Instruments. Mineral at Liege yielding Brimstone and Vitriol; and the way of extracting them, 3. 35. How Adics and Mines are wrought at Liege, 5. 79. A Stone in Sueden yielding Sulphur, Vitriol, Allum and Minium, and how, 21. 375. See Kircher's Mundus Subterraneus abbr. 6. 109.

Monsters, a Calf deform'd, and a great stone found in a Cows womb, n. 1. 10. a Colt with a double eye in one place, 583.

Moons Diameter how to be taken, and why increased in the Solar Eclipse of Jun. 22, 1666. n. 2. p. 373. see Planets What discoverable in the Moon, and what not. Moons Eclipses how to take without inconvenience, 457.

Mulberry-Trees how to be cut low, and easie to be reach'd, for relief of Silk-worms, in China, 14. 249. in Virginia, 12. 202. see Silk.


NIle's Inundations, the cause attributed to Niter, by Dela Chambre; opposed by Vossius. See both in the List of Books, 14. 251. and 17. 304.

The North-Countries of Poland, Sweden, Denmark, &c. are warm'd by the influence of the Royal Society, 19. 344.


OCean, what Seas may be joined with it, 3. 41.

Opticks, Campani's Glasses do excell Divini's; 'tis easie by them to distinguish people at four Leagues distance, 2. 131. and 12. 209. What they discover in Jupiter and Saturn, 1. 1. and 2. The proportions of Apertures in Perspectives reduced to a Table by M. Auzout, 4. 55. Animadverted upon by M. Hook, 4. 69.

How to illuminate Objects to whatsover proportion, proposed by M. Auzout, 4. 75.

Hevelius, Hugenius, and some in England, endeavour to improve Optick Glasses, 6. 98.

Seigneur Burattini's advance in the same inquired after, 19. 348. Some answer to it from Paris, 21. 347.

Divini makes good Optick Glasses of Rock-chrystal, that had veins (if he mistook not somewhat else for veins) 20. 362.

To measure the distances of Objects on earth by a Telescope, undertaken by M. Auzout, and others of the Royal Society, 7. 123.

How a Telescope of a few feet in Diameter may draw some hundreds of feet, 7. 127.

How a Glass of a small convex-sphere may be made to reflect the Rayes of Light to a Focus at a far greater distance than is usual, 12. 202.


PArsley, to make it shoot out of the ground in a few hours, see Hon. Fabri 18. 325.

Pictures, a curious way in France of making lively Pictures in Wax, and Maps in a low relieve, 6. 99.

The cause why Pictures seem to look upon all Beholders, on which side soever they place themselves, 18. 326.

Ancient Paintings compar'd with the Modern, and a judgment of the Paintings in several Ages, their perfections, and defects, see M. Felibien, 21. 383.

Petrification, in the wombs of Women, 18. 320. in a Calf in the Cows womb, 1. 10. Stones found in the heart of the Earl of Belcarris, 5. 86. Part of an Elm by incision, or otherwise, petrified a foot above the root and ground, 19. 329. Wood petrified in a sandy ground in England; and of a Stone like a Bone or Osteocolla, 6. 101. A Stone of excellent vertues found in the head of a Serpent in the Indies, 6. 102. The causes of Petrification inquired, 18. 320.

Planets, see Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Sun, Moon; which are turbinated, and which not, 8. 143. To find the true distances of the Sun and Moon from the earth, 9. 191.

Physicians of China, commended, see Medecins.

Preservation, to preserve small Birds taken out of the shell, or other Fœtus's, for discoveries, 12. 198.

Pulses of the Sick how diligently, and to what good purposes observ'd in China, 14. 249.


RAinbows strangely posited, 13. 219.

Raining of Ashes, and how, 21. 377.

Rice prospers best in watery places, see Marishes, 18. 328.


SAlamander, how it extinguishes fire, and seeds by licking Indian earth, 21. 377.

Salt by excessive use stiffens, and destroys the body, 8. 138.

Salt-Springs, see Springs.

Salt-Peeter how made in the Mogols Dominions, 6. 103.

The proportion of Salt in best Salt-Springs; and what grounds or signs of best Salt, 8. 136.

Sea-fluxes, the cause proposed by way of a new Theory, by Dr. Wallis, 16. 263. See Tydes.

Seas, whether they may be united, 3. 41.

Silk-Worms and Silk-Trade sollicited, 5. 87. and 2. 26. and 12. 201.

Snakes, how they differ from Vipers, 8. 138.

Rattle-Snakes, how sometimes kill'd in Virginia, 3. 43. and 4. 78.

Snow-houses directed, and how to preserve Ice and Snow in Chasse, 8. 139.

Springs, of peculiar note, n. 7. 127. n. 8. 133. 135. and 136. n. 18. 323.


TAste, the Organ and Nature of it, 20. 366.

Thunder and Lightning, the Effects examined, n. 13. 222. n. 14. 247.

Tydes, the causes proposed, 16. 263. See a further examination by a severe History of Tydes, Winds, and other circumstances directed, n. 17. n. 18. n. 21.

Trees of Oak how sound under-ground in Moors or Marishes, 18. 323.

Thee, in China and what; and how exchanged there for dried leaves of Sage by the Dutch, 14. 249.


WHale-fishing about Bermudas, and New-England, how it is performed, n. 1. 11. n. 8. 132.

Wind, how to be raised by the fall of water, without any Bellows, 2. 25. Shewed in a draught.

Worms, that eat holes in stones, feeding on stone, 18. 321.


The more


1. A Natural History of all Countries and Places, is the foundation for solid Philosohpy, See Directions, Inquiries, and Instructions for a Natural History of a Countrey, n. 11. p. 186.

See it in part exemplified in the History of England, begun by Dr. Morret in his Pinax, 20. 364.

See the cause of Tydes proposed by D. Wallis, 16. 263.

See the further Examination by a severe History of Tydes, Winds, and other Concomitants or Adherents, directed, n. 17. n. 18, n. 21.

See the Inquiries concerning the Seas, and Sea-waters, n. 18. 315.

See Directions for Seamen bound for far Voyages, 8. 140.

Kircher's Account of the Subterraneous World, 6. 109.

Mr. Boyle's Directions and Inquiries touching Mines, 19. 330.

Philosophical Directions and Inquiries for such as Travel into Turky, n. 20. 300.

The Relation of M. de Bourges, 18. 324.

M. Thevenots Relation of divers curious Voyages, &c. more particularly of China, 14. 248.

The causes of the inundation of the Nile, disputed by Dela Chambre and Vossius. In the List of Books.

See Mr. Boyle's Mechanical Deductions, and Chymical Demonstrations of the Origine of Forms and Qualities, 11. 191.

See the Application of these Mechanical Principles more particularly to the Nature, Operation, and Generation of Plants and Animals, and to our humane Contexture, in a Geometrical method, by Hon. Fabri, 18. 325.

See Mr. Boyle's History of Cold and Thermometers, n. 1. p. 8. n. 3. p. 46.

The History of Winds and Weather, and all changes of the Air (especially in relation to the weight) observable by the Baroscope, n. 9. n. 10, n. 11.

Light, some special search into the causes, and some peculiar Examples. See above in Light.

Petrification sollicited, see Petrification, Stone.

The Earths Diurnal Rotation, see Earth suprá.

Adventurous Essays in Natural Philosophy, see Guarini, 20. 365.

Earthquakes, and their Concomitants observed, n. 10. n. 11.

The effects of Thunder and Lightning examin'd, see Thunder, n. 13. 222. n. 14. 247.

The raining of Ashes and Sand at great distance from the Mount Vesuvius, see Raine, 21. 377.

Springs, and Waters of peculiar Note, see Springs.

Insects in Swarms how begotten; pernicious, and how destroyed, 8. 137.

Monsters, or Irregularities in Nature. The Calf, Colt, suprá.

Four Suns at once, and two strange Rainbows, 13. 219.

See the statical position and tendency or gravitation of Liquids, in Mr. Boyle's Hydrostatic Paradoxes, 8. 145.

See in M. Hooks Micrography, a History of minute Bodies, or rather of the minute and heretofore un-seen parts of Bodies; it being a main part of Philosophy, by an artificial reduction of all gross parts of Nature to a closer inspection.

Medicinals, see Medicine. Physicians, China. Friction, Dr. Sydenham. Dr. Lower, Friction, suprá. n. 4. 77. n. 12. 206.

Anatome, see Steno de Musculis & Glandulis. How a juyce in the stomack dissolves the shells of Crefishes, ibid.

Graeff de Succo Pancratico; that Flesh hath Vessels, n. 18. 316. Blood degenerated to resemble milk, n. 6. 117. The Transfusion of blood, 20. 353. The organ and nature of Taste, 20. 366.

Salt too much stiffens and destroys the Body, 8. 138.

II. SIngularities of Nature severely examin'd.

The ordering of Kermes for Color. n. 20. 362.

How the Salamander quencheth Fire, and lives by licking the Earth. n. 11. 371.

Whether Swallows do lie under water in Winter, and revive in Summer? n. 19. 350.

Whether the Hungarian Bolus like the Armnenus? 1. 11.

Rattle-Snakes how kill'd in Virginia, 3. 43.

Snakes and Vipers how they differ, see Snakes above.

The Qualities and Productions of May-dew, 3. 1.

Damps in Mines how they kill, 3. 44.

Teeth growing in aged persons, 21. 380.

Steams and Expiration's of the Body how stopp'd; and the stoppage dangerous or mortal, 8. 138.

Shining Worms in Oysters, 12. 203.

III. ARts, or Aids liar the discovery or use of things Natural.

See Artificial Instruments in the Table.

Agriculture, see the Inquiries, 5. 91.

English Vineyards vindicated, see in the Catalogue of Books.

Geometry, see Euclid methodized for Facility, Fermat: in the Catalogue of Books.

Astronomy, see Astromonical Remarks. Bulliadus, Hevelius, Comets, Planets, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Moon, Eclipses.

Opticks, see that head in the Table.

Picture, see' that head in P. and Felibien in the Catalogue of Books.

How to paint Marbles within, see the Head Marble

Pendulum Watches to ascertain Longitudes at Sea, 1. 13.

Whale-fishing about Bermudas, 1. 13. and 8. 132.

Silk-trade sollicited in France, Virginia, see Silk in the Table.

Eeles how to be found in Frosts, 17. 323.

Winds raised to blow by the fall of water without Bellows, 2. 25. shew'd in a Cutt.

Elephants enraged, how to escape or subdue, 18. 328.

Seas and vast waters, whether they may be united to the main Ocean, 3. 41.

To proportion the distance necessary to burn Bodies by the Sun, and shewing, why the Reflections from the Moon and other Planets do not burn, 4. 69.

The Art of making Salt-Peter, as practised in the Mogols Dominions, 6. 103.

To make China-Dishes, 14. 249. expected from Seigneur Septalio to be made in Europe, 7. 127.

To convey blood of one Animal, or other Liquors, into the blood of another Animal, 20. 353.

To preserve Ice and Snow by Chasse, 8. 138.

To preserve Ships from being Worm-eaten, 11. 190.

To preserve Birds taken out of the Eggs, or other small Fœtus's, for Anatomical, or other Discoveries, 12. 199.

To allay the heat in hottest Summer, for Diet or Delight, 15. 255.

Remedies against extream Cold suggested, 21. 379.

Trees of Oak as black as Ebony discover'd, and taken up out of Moors and Marshes in draughty weather, 11. 323.


That though in this last Head there is repeated the Transfusion of Blood, because the Operation is an Art requiring diligence, and a practised hand to perform it for all advantagious Discoveries, and so to be distinguish'd from the Anatomical Account; yet that there is not affected noise and number, may well appear by reviewing and comparing the particulars of Artificial Instruments in the Table, where sometimes one Engin or Instrument may minister Aid to discover a large branch of Philosophy, as the Baroscope, an Optick Glass,' &c.

And very particularly M. Rook's directions for Seamen, which specifies Instruments, may hereunto belong.

And sometimes in one of the Discourses herein mention'd, and abbreviated, there are almost as many Artificial Inventions, as Experiments; as in Mr. Boyle's Hydrostatical Experiments: Besides all the Chymical Operations, recited in the Treatise of the Origine of Forms, &c.

Ὀυκ ἐν τῷ μεγάλῳ τὸ εὖ, ἀλλ' ἐν τῷ εὖ τὸ μέγα.


Pag. 392. lin. 23. blot out, as. ibid. lin. 24. read of the Soul.