Popular Science Monthly/Volume 24/November 1883/Literary Notices
|←Editor's Table||Popular Science Monthly Volume 24 November 1883 (1883)
Professor Ely has here presented in small compass and attractive form a large amount of information about the notable socialistic and communistic schemes that have been brought forward in the two countries where most of such projects have originated. The distinction between socialism and communism he states as follows: "The central idea of communism is economic equality. It is desired by communists that all ranks and differences in society should disappear, and one man be as good as another, to use the popular phrase. The distinctive idea of socialism is distributive justice. It goes back of the processes of modern life to the fact that he who does not work lives on the labor of others. It aims to distribute economic goods according to the services rendered by the recipients." The earliest leader to receive attention is Babœuf, whose career began about a hundred years ago. He and Cabet, who was born twenty-four years later, are described by the author as "the two leading French representatives of pure communism." Babœuf's plan for the reorganization of society was adapted to produce a cheerless monotony, but that of Cabet is more attractive. Under that of the latter, goods and labor are common property; executives are chosen by ballot; marriage and family are held sacred. Young persons may choose their own career, but overcrowding of any profession is to be prevented by competitive examination. Science and literature are encouraged. Professor Ely describes the system of Count Henry de Saint-Simon as the first example of pure socialism. Saint-Simonism regards the dead level of communism as even more unjust than the present state of things, and aims to proportion each man's share of benefits to the service he renders the world. Religion should be reformed, not abolished, and all men should regard each other as brothers. All privileges of birth, including inheritance, were to be abolished. We find Saint-Simon and Fourier thus compared: "Each was required as a complement of the other. The one started in his career as a man of wealth and social eminence, the other as a man of the people. The one observed society, studied its history, its development, and sought to find therein a clew to guide him in his work of regenerating the world, morally and economically; the other, regarding the past as such a series of blunders as to afford no proper basis for future formations, searched the depths of his own consciousness, and discovered a law which furnished premises enabling him to construct deductively an ideal and perfect society, and to explain with mathematical accuracy the past, present, and future." Recognizing the absurdity of a large part of Fourier's writings, our author maintains that this is no reason for condemning the social scheme which he originated. Chapters are devoted to Louis Blanc, Proudhon, and to " Socialism in France since Proudhon."
German socialism is distinguished by its profundity. " One of its leading characteristics," says our author, "is its thoroughly scientific spirit. Sentimentalism is banished, and a foundation sought in hard, relentless laws, resulting necessarily from the physiological, psychological, and social constitution of man and his physical environment." Rodbertus, one of the earliest and ablest of German socialists, selects as the two chief economic evils, which cause most of the others, pauperism and financial crises. These could only be abolished by securing to laborers "a share in the national product, which increases pari passu with increasing production." A clear account is given of social democracy, and of the views of Karl Marx and Lassalle, the most prominent members of the party. A short chapter is devoted to the professorial socialists, among whom Bismarck is numbered; and, lastly, the views of the Christian socialists are presented.
The spirit in which Professor Ely deals with his subject is most commendable. His book is entirely free from the partisan views and the epithets that we find in the writings of so many of those who view socialism from the outside. It will do a great deal to correct the ignorant notion that socialists are a set of vagabonds who are anxious to divide with any one who has more than they, and to distinguish the views that some socialists hold on other subjects from socialism itself.
The first chapter treats of the location and boundaries of the Adirondacks, geological history, topography, climate, general features, botany, and faunal position, and contains much that is of general interest.
The author says "From a geological stand-point, the Adirondacks are interesting as constituting one of the few islands that rose above the level of the mighty continental sea previous to Paleozoic time. Its stern Archæan shores were washed by the waves of countless ages before the undermost strata of the lower Silurian were deposited upon them, entombing and preserving many of the trilobites, brachiopods, and other curious inhabitants of that vast ocean. This lower Silurian zone marked the shore-line, so to speak, of the ancient island, and consists of Potsdam sandstone and the lime-rocks of the Trenton period. Though broken and interrupted, enough of it still remains to afford us tantalizing glimpses of the life of the time, torn pages of fragmentary chapters that constitute but a half-told story to excite our imagination and regret."
As to the forms of the mountains, they are in no sense a chain, but consist of more or less irregular groups, isolated peaks, and short ranges, having no regular trend, conforming to no definite axis, and sloping in all possible directions.
The entire region is studded with hundreds of beautiful lakes of various sizes and depths, two of them upward of four thousand feet above tide-level. Under the head of "Climate" the writer speaks at some length of the meteorology of the region, and states that the mean annual rainfall exceeds that of most portions of the State by about five inches. After dwelling upon the causes which serve to lower the temperature, increase the humidity, and promote great luxuriance of vegetation, he recounts the singular fact that many characteristic marsh-plants grow upon the highest summits, as the conditions previously described tend to produce upon them the effect of marshes. On the very top of Mount Marcy a number of these swamp-plants have been found; a matter of especial interest, as there are no trees to protect them, from the sun, and they grow on the open summit nearly five thousand feet above tide-level.
In "Botany" he enumerates thirty-two species of forest-trees, fifty-seven of under shrubs, and one hundred and seventy-eight of the most noticeable flowering-plants. As to the "Faunal Position," he is of the opinion that the temperature alone would show that the district belongs to the Canadian fauna, and a number of the resident birds and mammals are cited in support of this view.
The other five chapters are given to Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia, Batrachia, and Pisces, respectively. Of the "Mammalia" forty-two species are enumerated, but the first part ends with the consideration of the carnivora, and constitutes a most important original contribution to the literature of North American mammals. We have grown accustomed to the modern iconoclast haunting all paths of learning, and now it is Dr. Merriam who robs us of our time-honored panther, the bloodthirsty monster of the deep woods. Not that he takes him entirely away, but he only lets him do some fearful leaping to satisfy our old ideal. He says the panther is an arrant coward; that he is not fierce unless he is wounded, and cornered at that; he does not climb trees except at the point of the bayonet, as it were, and he does not scream screams that curdle the blood; at least, it is the testimony of the most reliable hunters that he rarely makes any noise at all. But he does eat porcupines until his mouth bristles with quills, and he does catch deer, even if he has to make quite a jump to do it.
Lack of space obliges us to refer the reader to the book itself for a further knowledge of its contents, which will abundantly repay perusal, and will confirm what indeed is apparent throughout the work, that the author is thoroughly acquainted with his subject, and writes about it in a style which is at once entertaining and instructive.
This latest addition to the Science Series deals with a variety of machine "which has so rapidly attained prominence that few persons have yet been able to gain an adequate idea of its forms or principles. In the first of these lectures, on "The Dynamo in Theory," Professor Thompson proposed a division of dynamos into three classes, according to the movement of their armatures in the field of electrical force. He then took up the conditions on which the amount of force generated depends, and showed how far the fulfillment of each is compatible with fulfillment of the others. In respect to the condition of size, he calculates that, if the size of a machine is increased n times in linear dimensions, the efficiency will be increased n5 times. Under "The Dynamo in Practice " he has described the arrangement of the several elements as they appear in the machines of a large number of prominent electricians. The third lecture sets forth the principles on which is based the employment of the dynamo in converting the energy of electric currents into the energy of mechanical motion, and contains a demonstration of the mathematical law of efficiency of the dynamo as a motor. The volume is well supplied with illustrations.
These pamphlets belong to the series of "Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science," and speak well for the practical value of the plan on which the studies are based. The paper on Illinois shows how the southern counties of that State, being settled from the South, were organized on the Virginia plan, in which the county is the chief factor and the township is insignificant; while the northern counties, settled later from New England, were organized on the New England plan, with the township as the principal factor. The two systems have met and struggled for the mastery; the New England plan is prevailing, and now only about one fifth of the one hundred and two counties in the State cling to the old county system. The history of the development of the Pennsylvania system is more complicated. As it stands, it occupies the middle ground between the New England township and the Southern county systems, and aims at a partition of power, for the terms of which we must refer to the pamphlet. The organization in Michigan is a transplantation of the New England system, with unimportant differences. In Mr. Bemis's paper, the Michigan system is compared with that of each of the older Eastern States and with the systems which have been or are being adopted in the other States of the "West and Northwest, including the newer Territories; and the gradual introduction and growth of the township system in the Southern States is noticed.
Four editions of this essay have been published in Germany, but this is the first time it has been given in an English dress. It presents, in a rapid view, the record of what the Jews achieved for the advancement of mankind during the period indicated in the title, by their labors in literature, philosophy, science, and art. Their schools in Europe were, it is claimed, among the best of the period, and were attended even by the Christian clergy, because they furnished almost the only means of mental culture. Having no doctrinal theology, they were able to pursue every branch of study untrammeled, and their literature is rich in the fruits cf their many-sided work, particularly in philosophy, ethics, mathematics, astronomy, and hygiene. Down to the thirteenth century, they "far surpassed their Christian contemporaries, as well in point of intellect as in all the sciences having an important bearing on life." They contributed much to the revival of learning in the West, for they understood the languages in which the ancient learning was embraced, and, "had it not been for the efforts of Jewish translators, it is quite likely that the darkness of the middle ages would have enveloped us a good while longer." They were also active in the arts and trades, and carried on commerce. These statements are not bare assertions, but are sustained by abundant citations and references to authorities, which really constitute the bulk of the volume.
Lake Agassiz is the name given to a body of water which is supposed to have been formed in the basin of the Red River of the North and of Lake Winnipeg, during the final melting and recession of the ice sheet. Measured by the shore-line it was 175 miles, in a direct line 142 miles, from north to south. At its greatest height its outlet was about 1,055 feet above the sea, and was then through the valley of the Minnesota River, the flow to the north which the rivers of the valley now take having been restrained at that time by the thickness of the continental ice-sheet. The elucidating of these hypotheses is accompanied by a study in detail of the geological features of the district supposed to have been occupied by the lake.
This is the second volume of the "Library of Aboriginal American Literature" of which Dr. Brinton has undertaken the publication. The book itself is an aboriginal composition, partly in the Mohawk and partly in the Onondaga languages, and comprises the speeches, songs, and other ceremonies which composed the proceedings of the council when a deceased chief was lamented and his successor was installed in office. The ritual, which had been preserved by tradition for a period of unknown duration, was reduced to writing at about the middle of the last century, when many of the members of the tribes having learned to write in the orthography devised by the missionaries, the chiefs of the great council directed its composition in that form for permanent preservation. Copies of one part of the work were obtained by Mr. Hale from John Smoke Johnson, Speaker of the Great Council, and a descendant of Sir William Johnson, and Chief John Buck, Record Keeper; and of the other part, from the interpreter Daniel La Fort, of Onondaga Castle. Besides the ritual-books in their originals and English translations, with glossaries and notes, the volume contains a history of the Iroquois nation and league, an exposition of its policy, an account of the origin and composition of the books, a review of the historical traditions of the nation, and an analysis of the Iroquois language. The book is one of great ethnological value, in the light it casts on the political and social life, as well as the character and capacity, of the people with whom it originated.
This is the first number of a new magazine, the intended character of which is indicated by its name. It contains, besides a poetical salutatory, nine contributed articles on subjects of disease and treatment, editorial articles, notes, and proceedings of homœopathic societies. The editor reports upon a kind of election he has taken among the practitioners called homœopathic, for the purpose of determining to what extent they adhere to the original principles of the school, in which they have been accused of indulging a growing laxity. So far as the "returns" have come in, the majority still appear to "continue to believe in infinitesimals and dynamization, they still believe in the law of similars, and continue to honor the man who declared the fact and proved its truth."
There is much that is new in this book as compared with the arithmetics of ten years ago, notably in the arrangement. After five pages on "Numbers," "Decimal Fractions" are at once introduced, and are explained by means of the divisions of United States money, no separate chapter being given to this latter topic. Then follow the Four Rules, and after them "Metric Measures." The next chapter is on "Common Fractions," and "Measures in Common Use" come next, after the pupils have learned the metric system, an arrangement which can not fail to impress upon the young that the English measures are as absurdly inferior to the decimal system as British money is more inconvenient than American. The examples are not of the old-fashioned imaginary kind, but "are intended to convey, incidentally, a great deal of accurate and valuable information; so that, by means of the index, the book becomes a book of reference for many physical and mathematical constants."
A convenient and acceptable description of the great national Yellowstone reservation, with its mammoth hot springs, the great geyser basins, the cataracts, the canons, and other features of this land of wonders. The park is about 2,500 miles from New York by way of the Northern, and 3,000 miles by the Union Pacific Railroad. The Northern Pacific road carries, or will shortly carry, passengers directly to the park by its Yellowstone Park branch, while the Union Pacific will deliver them by 110 miles of staging from Beaver Canon. The fare to the park and back is from $155 to $165.
The author believes that hereditary bias must be taken account of, "although it has become too popular as an excuse for results which, through ignorance or design, are often obscure," but that insanity is largely promoted by intemperance, overwork, over-study, and many over-stimulating influences of American life. The escape from it must be prepared for by proper marriages, the cultivation of temperance in all things, and by counteracting the deteriorating influences that affect us.
Bloxam's "Chemistry" is a comprehensive text-book, intended "to give a clear and simple description of the elements and their principal compounds, and of the chemical principles involved in some of the most important branches of manufacture." The book is adapted to beginners, and the more special parts, that the general student would wish to omit, are put in small type. The promise in regard to technological subjects is well kept in treating of the extraction of the several useful metals, of glass, pottery, building materials, explosives, fuel, organic dyes, sugars, animal chemistry, etc. The volume contains a large number of cuts illustrative of the experiments introduced, and of the commercial processes described, and its table of contents is made very full, so as to afford the student a means of self-examination. This new edition "has been carefully revised, and some alterations have been made in the theoretical portion, to bring it into harmony with modern views." The volume is about equally divided between organic and inorganic chemistry.
This little book consists of directions for collecting, skinning, and mounting birds and mammals, so that they may be not only ornamental objects, but also useful for the study of natural history. The last chapter is on "Mounting Reptiles, Batrachians, and Fishes."
The "Review" is the monthly organ of a circle of land-owners of Cuba, and aims at the development and improvement of the agricultural resources of the island. The contents relate predominantly to the cultivation of sugar-cane and the manufacture of sugar. An article is also published on the cultivation of the eucalyptus.
Dr. Corning's treatment of this important subject consists first of an examination of the nature and phenomena of sleep, and of the relation of the blood-supply to the activity of the brain. Then follow some practical directions in regard to sleeping, and a discussion of the nature of several varieties of insomnia. Finally, some methods of diminishing the cerebral circulation are described, one of them being the "carotid truss," an invention of the author's for lessening the supply of blood through the carotid arteries.
This volume contains Dr.Siemens's Royal Society paper on this subject, the substance of which is included in his article entitled "A New Theory of the Sun," published in the "Monthly" for June, 1882. Other papers are, letters by M. M. Faye and Hirn, T. Sterry Hunt, C. A. Young, and others, criticising his theory, and Dr. Siemens's replies to the same. There is also a paper "On Electrical Discharges in Vacuum-Tubes, and their Relation to Solar Physics," being an extract from a presidential address by the author before the British Association. The appendix comprises a paper entitled "On the Electric Furnace," by C. William Siemens and A. K. Huntington; one on "Sunlight and Skylight at High Altitudes," by Captain Abney; "Remarks of Professor Langley on Ceptain Abney's Paper"; and "Dissociation of Attenuated Compound Gases," by Professor Liveing.
The author first examines Darwin's theory, and endeavors to show that the causes it assigns for the production of new species are insufficient. Some of his arguments are based on the non-production of new types in recent time, and on the great changes that the ape of to-day would have to make to develop into the man of to-day. He next discusses the nature of life, and the difference between human and brute life. A chapter is devoted to the question of the existence of a First Cause, which the author is disposed to answer in the affirmative. Finally, he proposes his new theory, which is, that, as "every living organism within historic times has required a receptacle or matrix for its conception, gradual development, and final birth,. . . if species are reproduced by this ordinary process, then it is fair to conclude that they must have originated not by an 'unusual birth,' but by an extraordinary generation—that is, the first members of each new species were produced from a mother of another species by the influence of a "direct creative influx"—i. e., by a sort of miraculous conception.
The purpose of this series to make citizens at large acquainted with the theory, functions, and operations of the State and national governments, and with their rights and duties is admirable, and the conception of the several books is well adapted to further it. The present volume treats of protection to life and property; the functions of the Federal Government in the matters of war, foreign relations, regulation of commerce, naturalization, post-offices and post-roads, Indians, the public lands, and patent and copyright laws; the functions of the State government in reference to corporations, education, charitable institutions, and immigration; and State finances.
This work is a collection of more than a hundred and fifty admirable maxims tersely expressed, embodying sound hygienic principles and practical instructions for the preservation of health. Its peculiar merit is the conciseness with which the rules are phrased, whereby they arc more sharply stamped upon the memory and borne in mind. The translator has arranged the manual with particular adaptation to its use in the fourth-reader grade of schools and for self-instruction.
The literary style of Cobbett receives in this book about equal attention with the incidents and achievements of his life. Although he is not often named among the masters of English that students of rhetoric are advised to read, and his grammar has been allowed to go out of print, yet the author is able to quote several good judges who agree with him in a high rating of Cobbett's style. Many extracts from Cobbett's writings are given, partly as specimens of his English, and partly as affording a better picture of the man than description could give. The author has secured for his estimate of the character of Cobbett the presumption of correctness, in that he mentions and condemns Cobbett's faults as unhesitatingly as he praises his virtues. The grammar, which is in the form of letters to a son, occupies about half the volume.
Dr. Brown was formerly Colonial Botanist at the Cape of Good Hope, and had his attention particularly directed to the subject of forestry by observation of the evils which had been brought upon South Africa by the reckless destruction of its woods. He has since become engaged in a kind of philanthropic work of publishing at his own risk books enforcing the necessity of renewing or preserving forests, and explaining the manner in which these objects are to be accomplished; the proceeds of one book, if there be any, being applied to the getting out of another in the series. The present volume embodies a translation in full of the famous ordinance from which it derives its name a statute which the author claims has exercised a deeper, more extended, and more prolonged influence on the forest economy of Europe than has any other work known to him. As introductory to it, are given notices of the treatment of forests in France in prehistoric times; of the incursion of the Normans and the changes introduced by them; of the administration of the forests of France in the first half of the seventeenth century, and the abuses and devastation of forests which followed; of the method of exploitation then practiced—jardinage, or the system of felling a selected tree here and there, and leaving the others standing; of the method of tire et aire—or "cut and come again"; of the method of compartiments—or the division of the wood into equivalent instead of equal portions, as in the former system, each of which is to be cut in its order in a regular succession of years; and explanations of some of the old technical terms used in the ordinance.
The pines on the Island of Nantucket, set out some twenty or thirty years ago, are fast dying in large numbers from some cause hitherto unknown. Mr. Scudder began his investigations as to the cause of the destruction in 1876, and found it at the extreme tips of the living twigs, in the shape of a moth-larva, which is hatched out in the bud and eats its way to the heart, sapping the life of the needles, one by one, as it goes downward. As the insects are numerous and prolific they soon take possession of the tree and eat away its life. The present monograph gives an account of the insect and its life-history, as well as descriptions of its relatives, and suggestions as to the way of contending with it.
The author has been a successful grower and exhibitor of roses, and essays in this book to tell how he has gained his success. With considerable copiousness of words and numerous digressions, all of which go to make his story lively and pleasant, he gives a great deal of information of practical value on all matters pertaining to the cultivation of good roses.
The forcible presentation in this work of the publisher's side of the questions on which publishers and authors are supposed to be liable to controversy or misunderstanding has awakened a lively discussion in the literary journals relative to the merits and faults of the two classes. This is well, for the subject is important, vague ideas prevail about it, and the questions relating to it should be settled, so that all can understand the situation, and be ready to accept it. This matter is, however, only an incident in the general purpose of the book, which is to teach young authors how to compose their books and to make bargains with publishers, so as to secure the greatest advantages to themselves, and at the same time make matters easy for the trade. The work contains a description of publishing methods and arrangements, directions for the preparation of manuscript for the press, explanations of the details of book-manufacturing, instructions for proof-reading, specimens of typography, the text of the United States copyright law, and information concerning international copy-rights, and useful general hints for authors. All this is of practical value to those who are bent on authorship, and are determined to disregard the advice given in the book to refrain from it.
The book is a set of blank tables, each ruled so as to give a record of the condition of a single patient during twelve hours. Columns are provided to show the condition of the pulse, temperature, respiration, and bowels, the medicines and nourishment given, the baths or lotions administered, the temperature of the room, and general notes on the condition of the patient, at each hour, with space at the foot of the table for the physician's directions and memoranda for the nurse. The second page of the cover is occupied with directions for nurses, lists of poisons and their antidotes, and instructions for emergencies.
This monograph is a part of the report of the Director of the United States Geological Survey. The study of which it records the results is one of a series designed to include all the lakes of the Quaternary formation. The geological structure of the Great Salt Lake Valley indicates that it was once the seat of an immense lake, with shores a thousand feet above the level of the present lake, while the mountains around bear the marks of shore-lines at different levels, testifying to a system of oscillations of the waters of this great sheet. Mr. Gilbert's studies were directed to the determination of the period at which this lake existed, and of the order of its oscillations. His conclusions are, that the history of the lake reveals the existence of two periods of maxima of moisture, separated by an interval of extreme dryness; that the time since the Bonneville epoch has been briefer than the epoch, and that the two together are incomparably briefer than such a geologic period as the Tertiary; that the period of volcanic activity in the Great Basin, which covered a large share of Tertiary time, continued through the Quaternary also, and presumably has not yet ended; that such earth-movements as are concerned in the molding of continents had not ceased in Western Utah at the close of the Bonneville epoch, and presumably have not yet ceased; and that the Wahsatch Range has recently increased in height, and presumably is still growing.
One of the good signs of the times is the increased attention that is given to the management of public libraries and the cultivation of correct reading habits and a taste for profitable reading in the general public. Both these books bear on these objects. The first relates to the direction of the attention of those who visit the libraries to the books that will be most advantageous to them—facts to be learned as to each reader by ascertaining the bent of his tastes and the nature of the subjects in which he has the most living interest—and to the inducement in him of the habit of systematic and methodical reading. The other book is a selection of papers by different authors, having in part a similar bearing with relation to the children in schools; and, in part, showing how the library, properly used, may be made a most efficient auxiliary to the studies of the school.
This is a book of practical information on matters relative to the qualities and manipulation of all kinds of handsaws, for the benefit of those persons, whether operative mechanics or amateurs, who use them; and it possesses a value to such to which its price bears a really small proportion. It is well illustrated; and a list of works referred to in the preface shows that a considerable literature on the subject exists in out-of-the-way places.
The "Studies" are the work of students of the university, with one essay contributed by Professor C. S. Peirce at their request. Two of the papers present new developments of the logical algebra of Boole. Another paper relating to deductive logic develops those rules for the combination of relative numbers of which the general principles of probabilities are special cases. In another essay, Dr. Marquand shows how a counting-machine, or a binary system of numeration, will exhibit De Morgan's eight modes of universal syllogism. A second paper by Dr. Marquand explains the views of the Epicureans, known to us mainly through a fragment of the work of Philodemus. Professor Peirce's paper contains a statement of what appears to him to be the true theory of the inductive process, and the correct maxims for the performance of it. The neophyte who takes up these essays with the view of mastering them will find abundant occupation.
The subject is considered as a means of promoting the art of song, and of curing weaknesses and affections of the throat and lungs, especially consumption. The author speaks from experience, having had her voice—a rare one for song—restored after she had lost it, by practice in deep breathing. We are told, in the preface to the present edition, that a class in deep breathing was formed in a certain sanitarium after reading one of the chapters of the book; as a result of a few weeks of practice in which, one young woman invalid increased the size of her chest three inches and greatly improved her health, and all received much benefit.
A classified list of the books most suitable for boys and girls, including both children and youth of from ten to sixteen years of age. The author is librarian of the Hartford Library Association. The list is prefaced by a terse review of children's books in general; a number of suggestions on the right use of books; notices of the best works for children in English and American history; and a "symposium," in which are quoted the expressions of several authors and authorities on the reading best suited for children.
A volume of Sunday-morning sermons, of which the first six, constituting a series, deal particularly with the objects of life, business, and education. In the first sermon, "The Modern Sphinx" is made to propound the question, What is the end of man? The answer given is that, as the earth and heavens glorify God by being, man can glorify God only by being himself. To help him accomplish this perfectly, business, brains, and education should be used and sought, not for themselves only, but as means and aids to help him give himself the highest development. The other sermons are on "The Newspaper—its Good and its Evil"; "A True Republic"; "Progress and Poverty"; "Religious Transition"; and "The Reign of the Dead."
This volume is composed of the four "Cartwright Lectures " delivered by the author in February last, before the Alumni Association of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York. It presents a clear and intelligent discussion of the subject, considering the nature and classification of the micro-organisms, their action on plants and animals, the diseases they occasion, and the methods of studying them, with remarks on the germ theory of disease, accompanied by good illustrations. We have been asked to name some comprehensive work on the bacteria. The present treatise is concise and methodical, and makes full use of the latest investigations.
The intention of the series of which this book is a member is not to enable the student to determine species, but to give the young morphologist practical directions assisting him to learn for himself what a fish, an amphibian, a reptile, a bird, and a mammal are, when considered from an anatomical point of view and contrasted with one another. In the present volume are given specific and detailed directions for performing the several operations of dissection on a bird, which are made more clear by well executed illustrations. The work has been composed chiefly by Dr. Moale, under the direction of Professor Martin.
The author, who is Professor of Geology in the University of Vienna, has already published a number of monographs on several of the metals which are the objects of man's mining enterprise and have been applied by him to his use, in which he has compressed much valuable information. In the present work he describes the uses that have been made of the alloys of copper, in sections treating of the geology and discovery of the metal, the characteristics of the alloys, the valuable uses that have been made of them, a summary, by nations, of the kinds of alloys that have been used by different people, and the literature of the subject.
The author of this study is Professor of Clinical Medicine in the University of Tokio, and the essay is a contribution to the "Transactions" of the German East-Asiatic Society. Authorities differ greatly in their estimates of the stature and other physical peculiarities of the Japanese, and betray great inaccuracy in their statements on the subject. Dr. Baelz has sought to remedy this difficulty by instituting a series of systematic and exact measurements. The paper gives the results he has reached. The present (first) part considers anatomical details. It is to be followed by a second part, treating of physiological peculiarities.
Archaeological Institute of America. Fourth Annual Report of the Executive Committee Cambridge: John Wilson & Son. 1888. Pp. 56.
The Journal of Physiology. Vol. IV, Nos. 2 and 3. Edited by Michael Foster, M. D., F. K. S. Supplement to Vol. IV, containing: List of Titles of Works and Papers of Physiological Interest published in 1882. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University. August, 1883.
The Sonnets of Shakspere: When, to Whom, and by Whom Written. Pp. 12.
New and Important Discoveries in Physiology. By George H. Russell. Newville, Pa. 1883. Pp. 14. 25 cents.
Observations on the Habits of the American Chameleon. By R. W. Shufeldt. 1883. Pp. 8. Illustrated.
The Relations of Pain to Weather. By Captain R. Catlin, United States Army, with Notes by S. Weir Mitchell, M. D. Philadelphia: Collins, printer. 1883. Pp. 19.A Synopsis of Copyright Decisions. By W. M. Griswold. Bangor, Me. 1883. Pp. 8.
The Structure and Appearance of a Laramie Dinosaurian, pp. 4, with Plates; and On the Mutual Relations of the Bunotherian Mammalia, pp. 7. By E. D. Cope. 1883.
Notes on the Volcanoes of Northern California, Oregon, and Washington Territory. By Arnold Hague and Joseph P. Iddings. 1883. Pp. 18.
The Heart of Man. An Attempt in Mental Anatomy. By Putnam P. Bishop. Chicago: Shepard & Johnston, printers. 1883. Pp. 93.
A History of the New York State Teachers' Association. By Hyland C. Kirk. New York: E. L. Kellogg & Co. 1883. Pp. 174. Illustrated.
Syllabus of the Instruction in Sanitary Science. By Delos Fall. Albion, Mich. 1883. Pp. 7. 10 cents.
On the Eight Use of Books. By William P. Atkinson. Boston: Roberts Brothers. 1879. Pp. 65.
God and the State. By Michael Bakounine. Translated from the French by Benjamin R. Tucker. Boston: Benjamin R. Tucker, publisher. 1883. Pp. 52. 15 cents.
A Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Edited by George Grove, D. C. L. Parts XVII and XVIII. London and New York: Macmillan & Co. 1883. Pp. 239. $1 per Part.
Sewer-Gas and its Alleged Causation of Typhoid Fever, pp. 20; and The Status of Professional Opinion and Popular Sentiment regarding Sewer-Gas and Contaminated Water as Causes of Typhoid Fever, pp. 10. By George Hamilton, M.D. Philadelphia. 1883.
The Influence of Athletic Games upon Greek Art. By Charles Waldstein, Ph.D. London. 1883. Pp. 24.
Studies from the Biological Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University. Edited by H. Newell Martin and W. K. Brooks. Vol. II, No. 4. Baltimore. 1883. Pp. 85, with Plates.
Professional Papers of the Signal Service. No. VIII. The Motions of Fluids and Solids on the Earth's Surface. By Professor William Ferrel, with Notes by Frank Waldo. Pp. 51. No. IX. Geographical Distribution of Rainfall in the United States. By H. C. Dunwoody. Pp. 51, with Maps. No. XI. Meteorological and Physical Observations on the East Coast of British America. By Orray Taft Sherman. Pp. 202. No. XII. Popular Essays on the Movements of the Atmosphere. By Professor William Ferrel. Pp. 59. Washington: Government Printing-Office.
Verbal Pitfalls. By C. W. Bardeen. Syracuse, N.Y.: C. W. Bardeen, publisher. 1883. Pp. 223.
Henry Irving. New York: W. S. Gottsberger. 1883. Pp. 207.
Van Nostrand's Science Series. No. 68. Steam-Heating. By Robert Briggs, C. E. Pp. 108. No. 69. Chemical Problems. By James C. Foye, Ph.D. Pp. 141. New York: D. Van Nostrand. 1883. 50 cents each.
Astronomy. By Simon Newcomb, LL.D., and Edward S. Holden, M.A. New York: Henry Holt & Co. 1883. Pp. 338. $1.40.
A New School-Dictionary of the English Language. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co. 1883. Pp. 390. 90 cents.
The Fertilization of Flowers. By Hermann Muller. With a Preface by Charles Darwin. London: Macmillan & Co. 1883. Pp. 669. $5.
Annual Report of the Operations of the United States Life-Saving Service for the Year ending June 30, 1882. Washington: Government Printing-Office. 1883. Pp. 504.
Finland: Its Forests and Forest Management. By John Croumbie Brown, LL.D. Montreal: Dawson Brothers. 1883. Pp. 290.
Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for the Year 1881. Washington: Government Printing-Office. 1883. Pp. 837.