Popular Science Monthly/Volume 27/July 1885/Literary Notices

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Popular Science Monthly Volume 27 July 1885  (1885) 
Literary Notices
 

LITERARY NOTICES.

INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC SERIES,
VOLUME L.

The Common Sense of the Exact Sciences. By William Kingdon Clifford. With One Hundred Illustrations. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 271. Price, $1.50.

Professor Clifford was applied to in 1871 to prepare a volume for the "International Scientific Series." He was asked if he would undertake a book to be entitled "Mathematics for the Non-Mathematical," the object of which should be to find out how far it is possible to go in explaining mathematical ideas to persons of intelligence who have had none of the higher mathematical training. This idea had been before proposed to several mathematicians, who agreed that nothing could be made of it; but it was suggested that if anything could be done with it Clifford's was the genius to do it. Professor Clifford was struck with the idea as novel and interesting, and said he would make a study of it and see what it promised. The result was so favorable that he decided to undertake the book and give such attention to it as his slender health and various pre-engagements would allow. There was but little doubt that the project was eminently suited to the peculiar characteristics of Clifford's mind; and that the subject was certain to be handled by him with originality and result in a valuable contribution to mathematical literature. But it soon became apparent that there was a serious question about the possibility of his accomplishing the task at all, on account of his declining health. He, however, did considerable work on it, but left it in an unfinished and fragmentary condition at his death in 1879.

In arranging the plan of the work it was Professor Clifford's intention to treat the fundamental conceptions of mathematics in six parts or chapters under the heads of Number, Space, Quantity, Position, Motion, and Mass. Of these six subjects he dealt with but four, dictating the chapters on Number and Space completely, the first portion of the chapter on Quantity, and nearly the entire chapter on Motion. Shortly before his death he expressed a wish that the book should only be published after very careful revision; that the title, The First Principles of the Mathematical Sciences explained to the Non-Mathematical, should be abandoned, and that the volume should be entitled The Common Sense of the Exact Sciences.

It was not easy to find a mathematician who would undertake to finish Professor Clifford's work. Upon his death, Professor Rowe, of University College, engaged to do it; but he also died before accomplishing the task, so that the final revision had to be made by still another hand. There are parts of this work contributed by Professor Clifford which answer finely to the original idea of it, and show what might have been done if he had lived and adhered to the first conception. A mistake was made by the subsequent editors in seeking to finish the work as they thought Clifford would have done it, rather than as in their judgment it might seem best. As it is, the work will probably be found more attractive to mathematicians than to non-mathematicians.

Annals of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College. Vol. XIV. Parts I and II. Observations with the Meridian Photometer during the Years 1879-'82. By Edward C. Pickering, Director, aided by Arthur Searle and Oliver C. Wendell. Cambridge: John Wilson & Son, University Press. 1885.

Almost the earliest record we have of astronomical observation is the catalogue of 1 ,028 fixed stars in the "Almagest" of Ptolemy, the epoch of which is a. d. 138. The chief value of this catalogue consists in its classification of the stars into six magnitudes, which classification, so far as those stars which are visible to the naked eye are concerned, has been continued to the present day. Since that time many other astronomers have made systematic observations on the relative brightness of the stars, the 416

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��comparisons up to the present century hav- ing been made either by the naked eye, or with the assistance of an opera-glass only. About the middle of this century photom- eters specially adapted for comparing the light of the stars were first used by German astronomers. Zollner invented a photom- eter, consisting of a telescope in which the light from a kerosene-lamp, admitted through a very small hole and presenting the ap- pearance of a star, is compared with the real star under observation. C. S. Pierce, of the United States Coast Survey, used such a one in the construction of a photometric cata- logue of 494 stars, published in Vol. IX of the " Annals of Harvard College Observatory." His description of his difficulties with this very imperfectly contrived and still more imperfectly constructed instrument would be amusing, if it did not excite regret that so accurate an observer and excellent a mathematician should have been weighted with an instrument so poorly adapted to the work.

Up to within a few years, only about 500 stars had been the subject of photo- metric observation, and for some time it has been regarded as highly desirable that sys- tematic comparisons should be made of the light of all stars visible to the naked eye.

In Vol. XIV of the "Annals of the Ob- servatory of Harvard College " we have the records of the most extensive and complete photometric observations ever undertaken. The great attention which Professor Pick- ering, the director of the observatory, has given to astro-photometry, and the large experience he has had with photometers, both of his own and others' construction, peculiarly fitted him for such a task.

Part I of the " Annals " opens with a description of the meridian photometer devised by Professor Pickering. Having ascertained by experiment that any change of position on the part of the observer had an injurious effect upon the observations, he constructed his instrument in the form of a broken transit, in which, the line of sight being always horizontal, stars at all altitudes could be observed without moving the head. Experience with other photom- eters had also satisfied him that no arti- ficial light could be a proper standard of comparison for the light of a star. A real

��star was therefore chosen, and the fact that the pole-star is always visible, and its light, on account of its very slight changes of alti- tude, a constant quantity, directed him in his choice of it as the standard of compari- son for all stars. To make sure that it was otherwise suitable, a large number of ob- servations were made of the pole-star, to ascertain if its light was subject to any periodical variation.

A reliable instrument and perfect stand- ard having been thus obtained, and many preliminaries settled which it is impossible to touch upon here, observations were begun in October, lS^, and continued till Septem- ber, 1882. During this period seven hun- dred series of observations were made, in- cluding 94,4*76 separate comparisons, the result being that every star not fainter than the sixth magnitude, between the north pole and thirty degrees of south declination, was compared from three to fourteen times with the pole-star. The whole number of stars thus compared is 4,260.

The space to which this review is neces- sarily restricted renders it impossible to give even a passing notice to the immense amount of work expended upon the subject of astro-photometry as recorded in these "Annals." An idea can be formed from the statement that there are in all ninety-one tables, some of which occupy several pages. The " General Catalogue," constituting Table XXVII, alone occupies 211 pages, each line having twenty-six columns, one of which has fourteen sub-headings.

Part II of the "Annals," the publication of which has been delayed till the present year, is largely devoted to a discussion of the work of those astronomers, from Ptolemy to the present day, whose estimates of the relative magnitudes of the stars Professor Pickering has chosen for comparison with his own. A very complete list of all known or suspected variable stars is also given, with copious notes as to dates and observers. There is also a chapter on the distribution of the stars.

Professor Pickering does not close his work with the advancement of any theories of his own. But, for whatever purpose an exact determination of the relative magni- tudes of the stars may be desired, either for the discovery of variable stars, or to as-

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��certain the position of the sun in the Galac- tic Cluster, this volume of the " Annals " fills a place which no other work yet published can make any pretense to. Whether we consider the perfection of the instrument employed, the plan of observatiop pursued, the accuracy and care with which the ob- servations were made, the large number of stars observed, the completeness of the rec- ords, or the exhaustive comparisons that have been made of the observations with those of other astronomers, we are equally satisfied that, so far as the photometric ob- servation of all stars visible to the naked eye in northern latitudes is concerned, the work of Professor Pickering and his able assistants leaves nothing to be desired.

The Chemistry of Cookery. By W. Mat- tieu Williams. New York: D. Apple- ton & Co. Pp. 328. Price, $1.50.

Since the publication of Johnston's " Chemistry of Common Life," thirty years ago, no book so important has appeared in this line of inquiry as the volume before us. Johnston's work was of broader scope, and, in fact, contributed little to the science of the culinary preparation of foods, to which Williams's work is devoted. Much has been done in this direction in the last generation, and a work was needed embodying the most important practical results. This Professor Williams has now given us in a very satis- factory form. Of the extent and impor- tance of the information conveyed in his pages nothing need be said to the readers of " The Popular Science Monthly," in which the successive articles have appeared ; but, now that they are collected together and offered as a treatise on the science of cook- ery, it is proper to state that the work has been ably done, and is entitled to rank as a standard upon its subject. Mr. Williams has given us " the present state of knowl- edge " on the chemical changes to which alimentary substances are subjected by cus- tomary kitchen operations. His facts and his chemistry are to be relied upon, and his conclusions are generally made with judg- ment, but some of his speculations may be extreme, and will be received with caution. His work has been criticised as if he had made too much of the test-tube and analyti- cal operations, and built unwarrantably upon vol. xxvii. 27

��their results. There are, of course, many things about organic substances and their subtile changes which chemistry can not ex- plain, and it certainly can not give us a complete science of foods. But the author of the present work is quite aware of this, and we do not think he has unduly strained the resources of his science in his efforts to elucidate the subject. His book will prove invaluable to read, for practical instruction, for reference in using common cook-books, and as a text-book for classes wishing to study the science of cooking in a careful and thorough manner.

A Text-Book of Hygiene. By George H. Rohe, M. D., Professor of Hygiene, Col- lege of Physicians and Surgeons, Bal- timore. Baltimore: Thomas & Evans. Pp. 324.

Every important division of the subject receives some attention in this treatise. It is intended to present the essential facts upon which the art of preventive medicine is based, in such manner as to form a guide for the American student, practitioner, and sanitary officer. Beginning with general considerations in regard to air, water, food, and soil, the author goes on to the special hygiene of dwellings, hospitals, and schools, and takes up also industrial, military, ma- rine, and prison hygiene. Several chapters are devoted to personal hygiene. Histories of the epidemic diseases are given, and the subjects of disinfectants, quarantine, and vital statistics are also included. A list of special works is given with each chapter. The author makes little claim to originality ; the qualities which he has especially sought are comprehensiveness and reliability.

The Microtomist's Vade-Meccm. By Ar- thur Bolles Lee. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston, Son & Co. Pp.424. Price, $3.

This work " a hand-book of the meth- ods of microscopic anatomy" has been prepared chiefly with the design of furnish- ing a complete but concise account of all the methods of preparation that have been recommended as useful for the purposes of microscopic anatomy. In order to make it also a suitable guide for beginners, a gen- eral introduction has been added, and intro- ductory paragraphs have been prefixed, when needful, to the different chapters,

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��which, taken all together, go far to make up a formal treatise on the art. To fur- nish to instructed anatomists, for whom the book is primarily designed, information on points of detail as to which their knowl- edge or memory may be at fault, a collec- tion of formulae is given and a number of special methods are described. For begin- ners, again, a collection is furnished of ex- amples, which are not intended for imita- tion, but as hints suggestive of the most fit- ting processes.

The Diamond Lens, with other Stories. By Fitz-James O'Brien. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. Pp. 337. Price, paper, 50 cents.

Mr. O'Brien was of Irish birth, a poet and story-writer of bright genius, whose contributions to the newspapers and maga- zines attracted much attention when they were published, and were generally popular and widely read, showing distinct originality and strong powers of penetration and de- scription ; they deserve to be remembered. The present series, including a baker's dozen of the stories, was published in 1881, with a biography of the author, by Mr. William Winter, and now appears again in a second edition.

The Life of Society. By Edmund Wood- ward Brown. New York : G. P. Put- nam's Sons. Pp. 270. Price, $2.

This work is intended to present a gen- eral view of the various factors, in nature and man, that work upon the structure and methods of society, and of the influence, in turn, of society upon man. The author's object has been, in a systematic study, to obtain as deep and adequate a general con- ception of society as possible, " the society of any township or any country of the world to-day, or the whole world of society in the past. ... I wish," he says, " to find an ex- planation of society that will suit wherever society is in any country, or has been in any country or age. I want to get a general view of the constant part of every society. I want to evidence and illustrate this by social and historic facts, drawn from the wide range of society in the past or the present." In general, he adds, " I hope, then, I have shown the real foundation of social science, though, doubtless, there are

��deficiencies." The subject is considered un- der the head of the effective causes acting upon society, among which arc the influences of the body, man's intellect, man's will, hab- it and usage, disposition and feeling, etc. ; then are considered various features of so- ciety, the influence of the parts of society upon one another, and of the whole upon the parts ; the growth and progress of so- ciety ; its incompleteness, imperfection, and deterioration ; rhythm and epochs in the life of society ; its laws, restraints, liberties, forms, and institutions ; and, finally, a gen- eral view of the spheres of society. The work bears the marks of laborious thought.

The Limits of Stability of Nebulous Plan- ets, and the Consequences resulting from their Mutual Kelations. By Pro- fessor Daniel Kirk wood. Pp. 110.

This monograph is an inquiry respecting the extreme limits within which a planet's atmosphere may exist, as measured by the distance from the planet's center, at which gravity and the centrifugal force will be in equilibrium; and further into the original or maximum values of the corresponding distances, which were much greater before the members of the system had contracted to their present dimensions. These found, the author applies the bearing of the an- swers to the discussion of the question, "Were the planets formed from nebulous rings

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��Third Annual Report of the Ohio Agri- cultural Experiment Station, for 1884. By William R. Lazenby, Director. Co- lumbus, 0. : Myers Brothers, State Print- ers. Pp. 240.

The theory of the station, it is stated in the introductory part of the report, " is to tell the farmers of Ohio what they most need to know " ; and much of the matter in the vol- ume appears to answer to that description. Field experiments were conducted during the year with grasses, fruit, and garden vegeta- bles. The primary object of the tests is to improve upon the best-known methods of cul- tivation and management. Among practical questions, earnest attention was given to as- certaining the comparative value of the best varieties ; the effects of thick and of thin seeding; the effects of sowing or planting at different dates, different distances, and

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��different depths ; the value of different methods of manuring and applying ferti- lizers ; and the comparative merits of dif- ferent systems of culture. In connection with this work chemical analyses were made ; experiments were carried on in self- and cross-fertilization ; investigations were made in regard to the best treatment of certain insect enemies and plant-diseases ; the cli- matic conditions were carefully noted ; and the work begun in practical forest-tree cult- ure was extended. The results of the inves- tigations are intelligently and intelligibly described. We regard the document as a good specimen of what such a report shoidd be.

An Introduction to the Study of the Compounds of Carbon; or, Organic Chemistry. By Ira Remsen, Professor of Chemistry in the Johns Hopkins Uni- versitv. Boston: Ginn, Heath & Co. Pp. 364. Price, $1.30.

The arrangement of this book is some- what different from that commonly adopted by teachers of organic chemistry. The low- est two members of the paraffin series are first considered, then, in order, their halo- gen, oxygen, sulphur, and nitrogen deriva- tives, and after these any peculiarities of higher paraffins and of their derivatives. Fifty pages are devoted to compounds which are at the same time alcohols and acids or aldehydes, etc. Next some account is given of the series of hydrocarbons homologous with the paraffins, and of their derivatives. The benzene series follows, and the various modifications and combinations of the ring molecule are described. Only the more im- portant compounds in each group, and the more important reactions, receive attention. General directions are given for eighty-two experiments, a fair proportion of which the author advises each student to perform ; for details in regard to analysis, etc., larger works are to be consulted. The author has taken pains to make the student see for himself the reasons for adopting the preva- lent views in regard to the structure of the compounds of carbon, and has aimed to give a general view of the whole field, leav- ing minute descriptions to the chemical dic- tionaries. The book is a welcome addition to the unsatisfactory list of text-books in onranic chemistry.

��A Reprint of Annual Reports and other Papers, on the Geology of the Vir- ginias. By the late William Barton Rogers. New York : D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 832. With Maps. This republication is made in answer to requests by geologists and others for the reports, which have been several years out of print, or very rare. " Of the value of the scientific discoveries, the generalizations, and the descriptions of the geological forma- tions contained in these reports," says the ed- itor, "there can be no better evidence than the frequency with which they are referred to and quoted by all who are engaged in ex- ploring the geology of the Virginias, and the aid they have given to the development of the industrial resources of these States, which they foreshadowed, and in fact often clearly pointed out, at a time when the ge- ology of the State was unexplored." The reports are arranged substantially in the or- der in which they were made, with the pre- liminary correspondence and the arguments addressed to the Legislature for the continu- ance of the appropriations, so that they have an historical as well as scientific value. The author himself desired to condense and codi- fy the reports, and present them with his special map and sections, as a single whole, but time and opportunity never came for doing so. Thus, the editor's work has been simply to revise the reproduction of the origi- nal reports and maps. But a number of pa- pers additional to the reports, relating to the geology of the Virginias, have 'been em- bodied in the volume.

An Introduction to Practical Chemistry, including Analysis. By John E. Bow- man, F. C. S. Edited by Charles L. Bloxam, F. C. S. Eighth edition. Phila- delphia : P. Blakiston, Son & Co. Pp. 248. Price, $2.

In this manual is laid out a short course of laboratory work, beginning with general chemistry, and including something of both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The book has been made especially for college students who have not studied chemistry, and have time only to gain some familiarity with chemical operations, without devoting much attention to chemical philosophy. The author has avoided the use of complicated or expensive apparatus, and has aimed to give clear and full explanatory details of

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��the several processes. Quantities are given in English measures, followed by metric equivalents. In the part devoted to analy- sis are included blow-pipe tests and deter- minations of specific gravity. Several new examples of quantitative separation have been added in this edition, and volumetric analysis has been given a separate chapter. Ninety cuts illustrate the operations de- scribed. A dozen pages of technical infor- mation in regard to reagents are given, also tables of weights and measures, reactions, and solubilities, lists of salts for blow-pipe examination, etc. The uncut edges of the volume are rather inconsistent with the title, " Practical Chemistry."

The Fallacy of the Present Theory of Sound. By Henry A. Mott, Ph. D, New York (printed for the author): John Wiley & Sons. Pp. 103. Price, 50 cents.

We are informed on page 7 of this book that "in 1877 Dr. II. Wilford Hall pub- lished a work on the ' Evolution of Sound,' in which he carefully considered, step by step, the present undulatory theory of sound, as elucidated by the distinguished authorities." It is furthermore said that Dr. Hall has shown that the current acoustical theory contains numerous fal- lacies, and, from the language adopted throughout the book, we should infer that it is shown to be childish, absurd, and wholly unworthy of credence. Dr. Mott avows his agreement with Dr. Hall, and he gave a lecture before the New York Acad- emy of Sciences, December 8, 1884, stating Dr. Hall's objections to the present theory of sound, and this lecture constitutes the volume before us. Dr. Mott says that the work of exploding this theory has already been pretty well accomplished, and in his preface he gives the names of divers presi- dents of colleges, and professors thereof, from California to New Hampshire and South America, who have accepted " Dr. Hall's discovery," and abandoned as base- less and worthless the hitherto accepted wave theory of sound.

We can not here state Dr. Hall's case as re-expounded by Dr. Mott, but discharge our duty by informing all who are con- cerned about it where they can get instruc- tion upon the subject. Nor have we formed

��any opinion, from having examined the ar- guments, whether the wave theory of sound has been exploded or not. There is getting to be such a free use of dynamite in these latter days among the supposed fundament- als and essentials of science, and long-es- tablished opinions seem so liable to sudden overthrow, that we are losing our interest in the operations. Perhaps the safest rule to follow in these revolutionary circumstances is to abide by long-tested principles until given up by those longest and most pro- foundly trained in the work of scientific in- vestigation.

School Bulletin Year-Book of the State of New York, for 1885. By C. W. Bar- deen. Syracuse, N. Y. : C. W. Bardecn. Pp. 160.

The " Year-Book " is intended to serve as a convenient educational directory for the State of New York. It contains sketch- es of the county superintendents and county commissioners, and a list of the principals of village schools and academies arranged by counties. Every alternate leaf is left blank, for the insertion of notes, additions, and corrections.

Obiter Dicta. New York : Charles Scrib-

ner's Sons. Pp. 232.

This is a collection of essays, which may be called critical or discursive, according to the mood of the reader, on " Carlyle," " Mr. Browning's Poetry," " Truth - Hunting," " Actors," " A Rogue's Memoirs," " The Via Media," and " Falstaff." They embody the " gratuitous opinions " of one who seems to be an independent thinker, forcibly and often very pungently expressed. Each es- say has its own quality; that on "Falstaff" is a fund of humor; and they are all pleas- ant reading.

The Sun and his Phenomena. By the Rev.

T. W. Webb. New York: industrial

Publication Company. Pp. 80. Price,

40 cents.

Notwithstanding the multiplicity of popular treatises on astronomy, the author has thought there might still be room for a description of the sun, which, confining it- self to a brief but careful enumeration of its phenomena, may be found serviceable in elementary instruction. The most re- cent discoveries are taken notice of.

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��A Catalogue of Chemical Periodicals. By II. Carrington Bolton, Ph. D., Pro- fessor of Chemistry, Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. Reprint from Annals New York Academy of Sciences. 1885. Pp. 58, 8vo.

This bibliography contains the titles of the chief chemical periodicals of all coun- tries, from the rise of this literature to the end of 1884. The titles number 182, and eight languages occur ; the arrangement is strictly alphabetical by the first word ; cross- references are freely introduced, from the editors' names to the journals published by them, and from the chemical societies to their publications. Bibliographical details are quite full ; the different titles borne by a periodical at different periods are ar- ranged in chronological order under the first or earliest title. At the end of the paper is a geographical index, arranged by countries and cities.

The material for this bibliography has been drawn for the most part from a larger " Catalogue of Scientific and Technical Pe- riodicals 1665-1882," by the same author. The larger comprises, we understand, over 5,000 titles, and forms a volume of nearly 800 pages; it will be published by the Smithsonian Institution in a few weeks.

The present catalogue will be useful to chemists, and especially to librarians.

Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of Washington. Vol. VII. 1884. Wash- ington, D. C. : Judd & Detweiler. Pp. 135.

This volume contains the minutes of the society and of its mathematical section for 1884. The society continues to show a vigorous growth. The total number of members enrolled, from the beginning in 1871, is 292. Thirty-five new members were added during the year, and the present number of active members is 173. The annual address of the president, James C. Welling, delivered December 6, 1884, was on " The Atomic Philosophy, Physical and Metaphysical." The " Minutes " include, besides this address in full, abstracts of the papers read at the stated meetings of the society, among which we notice, as of cur- rent general interest, Mr. Russell's on " The Existing Glaciers of the High Sierra of Cali- fornia," Mr. Kerr's on " The Mica-Mines of North Carolina," Mr. Russell's on the " Vol-

��canic Dust of the Great Basin," Mr. Dall's on the " Volcanic Sand that fell at Unalas- ka in 1883," with Mr. Diller's on the com- position of that dust ; and Mr. Dutton's on " The Volcanoes and Lava-Fields of New Mexico."

HOW SHOULD I PRONOUNCE ? Or, THE ART

of Correct Pronunciation. By Will- iam Henry P. Phyfe. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 305. Price,

$1.25.

The author assumes that the subject of English pronunciation has not, as yet, had its main facts and principles clearly and concisely presented ; and that, among exist- ing books, none consider the question em- braced in the title of the present one in its broadest sense, and endeavor to give it an in- telligent and satisfactory answer. His effort has been to supply this lack ; to furnish the reasons for the directions given, and to in- dicate the means of becoming proficient in the very important art. After an introduc- tory chapter presenting general views and principles, the topics are considered of the physical nature of sound, the nature and use of the vocal organs, articulate sounds, the sounds of the English language, alpha- bets, and the English alphabet. The last topic is followed by complete lists of the various sounds for which each letter in the English alphabet stands, and of the various symbols used for each elementary sound, which are claimed to be the fullest that have ever appeared. Then come rules and sug- gestions for becoming proficient in English pronunciation and the indication of the cor- rect pronunciations, according to both Web- ster and Worcester, of more than one thou- sand words that are frequently mispro- nounced. Proper names are considered in another chapter, and a bibliography of the subject is given in an appendix.

The Lenafe Stone : or, the Indian and the Mammoth. By H. C. Mercer. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 95. Price, $1.25.

In 1872 a young farmer in Bucks Coun- ty, Pennsylvania, turned up in plowing a "queer" stone, which he took home and threw into a box with his other "Indian curiosities." It was a piece of a broken " gorget-stone," on which could be discerned

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��carved lines, describing the outline of a mammoth. In 1881 he sold it in a lump with his other specimens to Mr. James Paxon, for the round sum of $2.50. Short- ly afterward, a smaller fragment was found, which, joined to the former one, completed the gorget, and also the design of a party of Indians hunting a mammoth. The ques- tion necessarily arises, Is the stone with its tracings a genuine aboriginal relic ? It is a very important one in American archae- ology. There appears no reason to doubt the entire honesty of all the persons who arc known to have handled the specimen. Unfortunately, the stone itself is not capa- ble of giving evidence ; for it was not seen, scientifically, till it had been cleaned two or three times, and its possessors had scratched over the lines to make them plainer. Its occurrence where it was dis- covered is unaccountable if it is not genu- ine. It has been submitted to experts in aboriginal relics, and they have expressed different opinions respecting it. Three oth- er carved stones have very recently been found on the same farm, the examination of which and their comparison with this one may throw some light on the subject. Mr. Mercer presents the evidence on both sides with seeming impartiality, but evidently be- lieves in the genuineness of the stone.

��PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED.

Report of the Assistant Director of the U. S. National Museum, for 1383. Washington : Gov- ernment Printing-Office. 1SS5. Pp. 200.

The Cooperative Commonwealth. By Laurence Oronland. Boston : Lee & Shepard. 1834. Pp. 278. Cloth, $1.

"The Museum: An Illustrated Monthly Jour- nal for Young Naturalists and Collectors." Edwin A. Barber, Editor. May, 1885. 1220 Sansom Street, Philadelphia. Pp.16. 15 cents a copy ; $1.50 a year.

"Mind in Nature: A Popular Journal of Psy- chical Medicine and Scientific Information." Monthly. Chicago : Cosmic Publishing Company. March, 1885. Pp. 16. $1 a year.

Experimental Investigation of the Reactions of Various Copper Salts with Grape-Sugar. By George Hay, M. D. 1885. Pp. 6.

American Languages, and why we should study them. Bv Daniel G. Brinton, M. D. Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott & Co. 1885. Pp. 23.

The Imported Elm-Leaf Beetle. Bulletin No. 6, U. S. Department of Agriculture. Washington : Government Printing-Office. 1385. Pp. 13. Illus- trated.

Revolution in the Practice of Medicine. By John P. Bonron, M. D. Chicago : Review Print- ing and Publishing Company. 1885. Pp. 55. 25 cents.

A Cataloeue of Chemical Periodicals. By H. Carrington Bolton, Ph. D. Author's edition. 1885. Pp. 5S.

��Luck of a Wandering Dane. By Hans Lykke- jaeger. Philadelphia : Matlack & Harvey, Printers. 1385. Pp. 130. 25 cents.

The Crime of Poverty. An Address delivered at Burlington, Iowa, April 1, 1S85. By Henry George. Pp. 15.

Population by Ages. Baltimore. 1885. Pp. 30.

The Life of an Oyster. By Professor Samuel Lock wood. Ph. D. New York. 1885. Pp.12.

Thirteenth Annual Report of the Directors of the Zoological Society of Philadelphia. Philadel- phia. 18&5. Pp. 10.

Address delivered at the Convocation of McGill University, April 30. 1835. By Professor D. P. Penhallow, B. Sc. Pp. S.

Bacterial Pathology. A Series of Papers on the Exhibits at the Biological Laboratory of the Health Exhibition. Reprint from the London " Lancet." New York : The Industrial Publication Company. 1885. Pp.43. 25 cents.

"The Sanitary Monitor; a Monthly Journal de- voted to Individual, Family, and Public Health." Edited by J. F. Winn, M. D. Richmond, Va. Pp. 14. $1 a year.

Bureau of Education : Planting Trees in School- Grounds, and the Celebration of Arbor Day, pp. 64 ; and City School Systems in the United States, pp. 207. Washington: Government Printing-of- fice. 1885.

Ovulation and Menstruation considered in their Physiological Relations. By Franklin Townsend, M. D. Albany: Burdick &, Taylor, printers. 1385. Pp. 18.

Scarlet Fever. By T. G. Comstock, M. D. New York. 1885. Pp. 19.

The Taensa Grammar and Dictionary: A De- ception exposed. By D. G. Brinton, M. D. From "American Antiquarian." Pp. 4.

Clinical Studies of the Incipient Stages of Ine- briety. By T. D. Crothers, M. D. 1885. Pp. 12.

On the Acquisition of Atmospheric Nitrogen by Plants. By W. O. Atwater. Pp. 24.

On the Vanadates and Iodyrite from Lake Val- ley, New Mexico. By F. A. Genth and Gerhard von Rath. 1385. Pp. 13.

A Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Edited by George Grove. Part XX. Macmillan & Co. 18S5. $1.

Recent American Socialism. By Richard F. Ely, M. D. Baltimore : Johns Hopkins Univer- sity. 1385. Pp. 74.

On the Evidence that the Earth's Interior is solid. By Dr. M. E. Wadsworth. Pp. 24.

History and Management of the Land Grants for Education in the Northwest Territory. By Georga W. Knight, Ph. D. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1835. Pp. 175. $1.

Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences. Vol. II, 1883. Washington : Government Print- ing-Office. 1SS4.

The Figure of the Earth. By Frank C. Roberts, C. E. New York : D. Van Nostrand. 1885. Pp. 95. 60 cents.

Photo-Micrography. By A. Cowley Malley. London : H. K. Lewis. 1885. Pp. 169.

The True and Romantic Love-Story of Colonel and Mrs. Hutchinson : A Drama in Verse. By J. Antisell Allen. London, E. C: Elliot Stock. Pp. 88.

The Social Philosophy and Religion of Comte. By Edward Caird, LL. D. New York: Macmil- lan & Co. 1S85. Pp.249. $1.75.

The Chemistry of Cookery. By W. Mattieu Williams. New York : D. Applcton & Co. 1S85. Pp. 328. $1.50.

Outlines of Psychology. By Hermann Lotze. Translated, with a Chapter on the Anatomy of the Brain, bv C. L. Herrick. Minneapolis, Minn. : S. M. Williams. Pp. 15. Illustrated.

�� � Materials for German Prose Composition. By C. A. Bucheim, F. C. P. Ninth edition. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1885. Pp.252. $1.25.

The Occult World. By A. P. Sinnett. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 1885. Pp. 228. $1.25.

The Philosophic Grammar of the American Languages, as set forth by Wilhelm von Humboldt. By Daniel G. Brinton, M.D. Philadelphia: McCalla & Stavely. 1885. Pp. 51.

The Invalids’ Tea-Tray. By Susan A. Brown. Boston: J. R. Osgood & Co. 1885. Pp. 67.

Russia under the Tzars. By Stepniak. Translated by William WestalL New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1885. Pp. 381. $1.50.

An Inglorious Columbus. By Edward P. Vining. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1885. Pp. 788. $5.

Collected Essays in Political and Social Science. By William G. Sumner. New York: Henry Holt & Co. 1885. Pp. 173. $1.50.

Mushrooms of America, Edible and Poisonous. By Julius A. Palmer, Jr. Boston: L. Prang &, Co. 1885. Pp. 5, and Twelve Colored Plates.

The Copper-bearing Rocks of Lake Superior. By Roland Duer Irving. Washington: Government Printing-Office. 1883. Pp. 464. Illustrated.