Popular Science Monthly/Volume 28/November 1885/Literary Notices
|←Editor's Table|| Popular Science Monthly Volume 28 November 1885 (1885)
Modern Science and Modern Thought. By S. Laing, Esq., M.P. London: Chapman & Hall; Philadelphia: Lippincott. Pp. 320. Price, $4.
Both the plan of this book and the manner of its execution will give it a strong claim upon many readers. The first six chapters, comprising more than half the volume, are devoted to summing up the large 126
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��results of modern science, in so far as they have given rise to new views of nature and the universe. The first chapter, under the title of " Space," states the striking facts that have been disclosed in later times con- cerning the magnitude and order of celestial phenomena. It t«lls of the revolution of hu- man ideas, on a great scale, which has been wrought by astronomy. Chapter II takes up the conception of " Time," as disclosed in the revelations of modern geology, and the grand course of changes that have been brought about in vast periods, with a sum- mary of its vital bearings on man's concep- tion of the world. In the next chapter, un- der the title " Matter," an account is given of the constitution of nature in its physical and chemical elements, as shown by the spectroscope and illustrated by the universal law of the conservation of energy and the views that have been arrived at concerning the birth and death of worlds, Mr. Laing then gives a chapter to the subject of "Life," which is descriptive of the views now entertained of its course of develop- ment upon earth, and the biological laws which have been established in recent times. He next takes up the subject of the " An- tiquity of Man," and gives a very clear state- ment of the evidence, from which it is in- ferred that the human race is far older than was formerly supposed. Tins subject is pursued still further in Chapter VII, on " Man's Place in Nature." The doctrine of evolution is broadly assumed, and man and civilization are treated as its products. In this first portion of his work Mr. Laing un- dertakes no more than to give a popular statement of the great facts and theories on these several subjects, which we owe to science, with no attempt to propound views of his own. His work is excellently done. The presentation is kept in due proportion, is trustworthy, and is very clearly and in- structively written. We know of no other so valuable a summary of what science has accomplished in subverting old opinions, and substituting a new and higher order of knowledge.
Part II is devoted to " Modem Thought," and here the author takes independent ground, and, ceasing to follow authority, be- comes responsible for his own opinions. His object now is to trace the consequences of
��those great revolutions of ideas which we owe to science, as they affect philosophical and religious opinion and current concep- tions of common and practical life. He main- tains that the great body of traditional thought has been variously but profoundly disturbed by modern scientific enlighten- ment. Especially are old creeds and philoso- phies undermined and shattered by scientific progress, and "the endeavor to show how much of religion can be saved from the ship- wreck of theology has been the main object of the second part " of this work. Supernat- uralism is rejected without reservation, and it is elaborately argued that Christian mira- cles have no better support than the alleged miracles of other religious systems. It is the view of the author that, only as the deeply implanted errors of superstition are eradicated, will it be possible to gain the great advantages to mankind which must ultimately come from the immense modem extensions of scientific truth. Mr. Laing handles these topics with entire freedom, but with great sincerity, and closes his pref- ace by remarking, " I can only say that I have endeavored to treat these subjects in a reverential spirit, and that the conclusions arrived at are the result of a conscientious and dispassionate endeavor to arrive at ' the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth.' "
Prehistoric Fishing in Europe and North America. By Charles Rau, Washing- ton : The Smithsonian Institution. Pp. 342.
In the debris left by the cave-men of Europe are found small bone implements, pointed at both ends, whose use can not be definitely stated. The Indians of Washing- ten Territory use similar implements for catching fish and birds by tying a line round the middle and baiting them, and this fact suggests that the European implements may have been used as bait-holders in like man- ner. Other relics of the palaeolithic fisher- men described by Dr. Rau are barbed har- poon-heads of reindeer-horn and pieces of horn and bone, bearing scratches which, with more or less effort, can be accepted as designed to represent fish and fishing scenes. To the neolithic period belong the relics of the Swiss lake-villages. Among them are
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��fish-hooks and harpoon-hcads of bone and horn, fragments of nets, and certain per- forated stone disks, which may have served as line or net sinkers. Siinilar implements have been found at other places in Europe. Fish hooks of bronze ubo have been found on the sites of the lake-villages. Dr. Hau gives figures of about thirty bronze hooks. They vary much in form and size ; a i)art only arc barbed, but nearly all arc bent over at the top to form an eye for the at- tachment of the line.
The second part of the memoir treats of American aboriginal fishing, and is based on the materials contained in the archaeo- logical division of the National Museum, of which division Dr. Rau has charge. Some of the hooks of aboriginal manufacture arc similar in general form to ordinary modem fish-hooks, but only one regularly barbed specimen is known to the author. It was found in Madison County, New York, and is thought to have been made since 1600, and in imitation of the hooks brought to this country by Europeans. The hooks of bone and shell found in California are pe- culiar. The curved point approaches so closely to the shank that some persons have doubted their ever being used as fishing im- plements. It would probably be impossible to hook fish with hooks of this shape, but just such hooks have been brought from Pacific islands by travelers, who report that the natives are very successful with them in taking fish that bolt the hook instead of nibbling at it. No bait is used, as the hook itself looks somewhat like a worm. Twenty- eight dart-heads of bone and horn are here figured, most of which the author believes were armatures for fishing implements. Twenty of them have barbs on one side only, while the others are barbed on both sides. Several dart-heads of copper, each of which has a single barb, are in the col- lection of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. A large number of grooved, notched, or perforated stones have been found, which must have been used as sink- ers for fish-lines and nets. Similar stones are used as sinkers by both Indian and white fishermen to-day. Two specimens of copper sinkers have come within the knowl- edge of the author. Stone carvings and pottery representing fishes have also been
��found in this country. The evidence that the American aborigines used mollusks as food is abundant ; great heaps of oyster, clam, mussel, and other shells are found along our sea-coasts and river-banks. In- termingled with these shells are bones of various animals, implements, fragments of pottery, and vestiges of fireplaces. Dr. Kau appends to this memoir fifty-eight pages of extracts from various writings of the last four centuries, in which reference is made to aboriginal fishing in North Ameri- ca, and some notices of fishing implements and fish representations discovered south of Mexico. The text is illustrated by four hun- dred and five figures.
Town Geology : The Lesson of the Phila- DELPniA Rocks. Studies of Nature along the Highways and among the Byways of a Metropolitan Town. By Angelo Heilprin, Professor of Inver- tebrate Paleontology at, and Curator-in- charge of, the Academy of Natural Sci- ences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia: Published by the Author. Academy of Natural Sciences, 1885. Pp. 152, with Seven Plates.
Not only from the simple to the com- plex, and from the concrete to the abstract, but from the immediate to the remote, lie the true directions of mental movement in the growth of knowledge and in rational study. To begin where there is much fa- miliarity, some knowledge, and more or less curiosity and interest, and pass on to that which is remoter and deeper, is the true meth- od. But, strange to say, the reverse method is that usually pursued. Instead of start- ing with the known and building upon it, the custom is to begin with the distant and unknown, and often, indeed, stay there so long that the knowledge acquired in many eases never becomes a reality at all. Geol- ogy, particularly, is liable to be pursued in this way, general ideas being accumulated from the books, with little application to facts within the limit of common experience. The present volume is an admirable ex- emplification of the true method of geolog- ical study. The author takes up the facts with which all Philadel|)liians arc familiar, and in which they may be therefore assumed to have a certain degree of interest, and connects tliom in a very simple and instruc- tive way with the great body of geological
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��truths in which these facts find their ex- planation. The rock systems in the Phila- delphia neighborhood arc described, together with the changes which have led to the pres- ent condition of things, and the accompany- ing succession of life as disclosed by fossil relics. " White-Marble Steps and Window- facings," "Brown-stone Fronts and Jersey Mud," "Philadelphia Brick and Cobble- stone," arc the familiar texts used by the author to interpret the wonderful workings of Nature in the immeasurable past, and which, through long chains of causes and effects, have given rise to the present order of things. The work is admirably done, and the studious citizens of the Quaker metropolis owe their best thanks to the young geologist who has performed the task. It would be a good thing if we could have something of the kind in Xew York.
Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, 1884. Mont- real : Dawson Brothers.
This second volume, issued by the Roy- al Society of Canada, comes to us with its united departments of literature and science, in French or English, as the language of the contributor may be. Of the scientific mem- oirs only need we here speak ; they are va- ried and excellent. Dr. George Lawson, Professor of Botany at Dalhousie College, Halifax, Nova Scotia, gives a revision of the Canadian Ranunculacece, in confirmation and extension of a monograph published in 1870. During fifteen years he has given direction to the observation of this import- ant order by botanists afield throughout the wide provinces and territories of the Domin- ion. Direction of this kind gives value to much of what might otherwise be but dis- connected observation. Dr. Lawson's mem- oir, though extensive, is incomplete in cer- tain groups to which he directs the attention of Canadian botanists.
Dr. T. Sterry Hunt, of Montreal, presi- dent of the society, presents a review of the much controverted Taconic question in geol- ogy, and shows ground for believing that the newest member of the great series of pre-Cambrian, crystalline, stratified rocks is what is called Lower Taconic, or Tacon- ian, and is widely distributed over North and South America, Europe, and Asia. Dr.
��Ilunt has arrived at his conclusions from protracted study in America and Europe.
From the same eminent geologist we have a paper on the " Origin of Crystalline Rocks." lie approaches the great problem of the origin of such rocks as granite and gneiss, and after a discussion of the Neptu- nian, igneous, and the metamorphic schools, rejects them all as untenable, in favor of what he calls the crenitic hypothesis, and claims it as a legitimate development of the Neptunism of Werner. This hypothesis supposes the existence of a primary Plutonic stratum, the outer layer of the original aque- ous globe, which, more or less modified by the subsequent penetration of water, has been the direct source of eruptive rocks like basalt and dolerite, and at the same time has furnished indirectly and by aqueous solution the elements of all granitic and gneissic rocks. This radical and far-reach- ing hypothesis will doubtless command the attention of chemists and geologists the world over.
Other papers of interest, on topics chem- ical, zoological, and physical, evidence the activity of original research among men of science in Canada.
The Copper-bearing Rocks of Lake Supe- rior. By Roland Duer Irving. Wash- ington : Government Printing - Office. Pp. 464, with Twenty-nine Plates.
This is a paper prepared in connection with the United States Geological Survey under Mr. Clarence King. It aims at a gen- eral exposition of the nature, structure, and extent of the series of rocks in which occurs the native copper of Lake Superior ; a work which has never been attempted before, nor, it is asserted, could it have been accom- plished sooner. Much had been written on different parts of the Lake Superior basin, but gaps still existed in the surveys, and much remained to be learned concerning the nature of the crystalline rocks. These obstacles have been removed by the later surveys, and the gaps that still remained have been filled by the personal observa- tions of Mr. Irving and his aids. All the information at command has been examined and drawn upon and is used, and the views of different authors, often conflicting, are discussed in the present work.
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��CJONTRinUTIONS TO THE KnOWLEDOK OP THK
Oldkr Mesozoic Flora ok \'iRaisiA. liy William Mokuis Fontaine. Washinj;- ton : Government Piinting-Offico. Pp. 144, with Fifty-seven Plates.
The Sle.^ozoic beds of Virginia arc all Bituntcd east of the Blue Ridge, and most of them are found within the terrain of the crystalline Azoic rocks. The beds are di- vided into two classes, which appear to have but little in common with one another. The older Mcsozoic beds, which furnished the plants described in this book, are of fresh- water or brackish-water deposit, and often contain coals. The younger formations also contain plants, but of a totally different character from that of the plants of the older Mesozoic. The most important of all the beds passes about ten miles west of Richmond, and is about thirty miles long and six broad. It contains nearly all the coal and yields nearly all the plants found in the formation. Besides the plants found in these bods, and for the sake of compari- Bon with them, plates and descriptions are given from Emmons's work of plants from the older Mcsozoic strata of North Caro- lina, most of which, however, coming from strata above the coal, are supposed to be of a somewhat later age than the Virginia plants.
The Q. p. Index for 1884. Fourth annual issue. Bangor: Q. P. Inde^. Pp. 57. Price, $1.
In this issue, which forms No. 17 of the Q. P. scries, the numbers for 1884 of fifty periodicals, and of the United States con- sular reports and education circulars, arc indexed. The list includes all the impor- tant American literary magazines and re- views, most of the British literary maga- zines which have a circulation in this coun- try, and about a dozen German periodicals. Tiic "Revue de Bolgiciuc" is included, but not the " Revue des Deux Mondes." Since the British reviews were indexed in No. 16, they do not appear in this issue. When one realizes that about scvcnty-fivc thou- sand pages are indexed in these fifty-seven pages, it becomes evident that Mr. Griswold has brought the art of abbreviating to a wonderful state of cfTiciency. lie is also a spelling reformer who has the courage of his convictions, for he writes "forein," VOL. xxviii.— 9
��"wehh," "tarif," "primitiv," "fotografy," " iland," etc.
Commercial Organic Analysis. By Al- fred 11. Allen, F. 1. C, F. C. S. Sec- ond edition, revised and enlarged. VoL I. Philadelphia: P. Blakision, Son & Co. Pp. 470. Price, $4.50.
The edition of this work now publish- ing is to appear in three volumes instead of two, as in the first edition. A new arrange- ment of the subject-matter hus been adopt- ed, :o that each volume may treat more especially of kindred products. The vol- ume now presented is devoted chiefly to the consideration of bodies of the fatty series and of vegetable origin, and includes chap- ters on the alcohols, ethers, and other neu- tral derivatives of the alcohols, sugars, starch and its isomers, and vegetable acids. In revising this volume, the author has made considerable changes and additions in order to bring the information contained up to the latest possible date, so that very few pages remain as they stood in the first edition. He promises as thorough treat- ment of the rest of the work.
Insomnia ; and other Disorders of Sleep, By Henry M. Lyman, M. D. Chicago : W. T. Keener. Pp. 239. Price, $1.50.
This book discusses in a clear and read- able style one of the severest afflictions to which man is liable. In the discussion the author covers an even wider ground than is indicated in his title, and considers all the phenomena of sleep, both normal and trou- bled, lie begins with a full chapter on " The Nature and Cause of Sleep," which is followed by the consideration of the imme- diate subject of the treatise — insomnia, or wakefulness, the remedies for it and the treatment of it in particular diseases ; and after this are given chapters on " Dreams," " Somnambulism," and "Artificial Somnam- bulism, or Hypnotism."
List of Tests (Reaoexts). By Hans >I. Wilder. New York : P. W. Bedford. Pp. 88. Price, f 1.
The nine hundred and fifty-three testa are described briefly under the names of the originators, which arc arranged alpha- betically, and a subject-index is added. The very common tests are not included.
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��Descriptive America. A Geographical and
Industrial .Monthly ilagazine ; L. P.
Urockktt, Editor. Pp. a2. Price, §5 a
year ; 50 cents a number.
Each number of this publication is de- voted to a particular State. The number before us, which is marked Vol. I, No. 6, is given to Georgia. It includes a fine map of the State, a list of cities, towns, villages, and stations, an editorial article on interna- tional exhibitions, and chapters describing the State in general and relating to cotton and rice culture, lands, population, immi- gration, education, the representative men, the religious condition, government, finances, debt, and taxation and history of the State, with a statistical table of counties. Several of these articles are furnished by men disl tinguished or representative in the specia- fields to which the papers respectively relate.
Van Nostrand's Scikxce Series. New York : D. Van Nostrand. Price, 50 cents each.
No. 73. Symbolic Algebra ; or. The Al- gebra of Algebraic Numbers. By Professor William Cai.s. Pp. 131. The object of this essay is the discussion of negative quantities of algebra, with the purpose of finding a logically developed system that shall include such quantities as special cases. The volume also includes some criti- cal notes on the methods of reasoning em- ployed in geometry.
No. 74. Testing-Machises : Their Ilis- tory. Construction, and Use. By Arthur V. Abbott. Pp. 190. Mr. Abbott has been engaged for several years in developing and applving methods of testing the strength of materials, and in this book explains such of hifl most successful methods as seem hkely to be generally useful and interesting.
No. 75. Recent Progress in Dynamo- Electric Machines. By Professor Silva- Kus P. Thompson. Pp. 1 1 3. This is a re- print of lectures delivered before the Eng- lish Society of Arts on the subject indicated in the title, which were supplementary to a previous series of lectures on the theory of the dynamo and its functions as a mechani- cal motor.
No. 77. Stadia-Scrveting. By Abthcr WiNSLOW. Pp. 148. This hand-book con- tains a complete exposition of the theory of stadia measurements, with directions for
��its application in the field. Tables for the reduction of observations are added which the author has used in the Geological Sur- vey of Pennsylvania, and with them the trigonometrical four-place tables.
No. 78. The Steam-Engixk Indicator. By William Barnet Le Van. Pp. 169. In this book the indicator and its object are described ; its construction and action are explained ; and the method of calculating the horse-power of engines is illustrated. An endeavor has also been made to explain the most important parts of the theory and action of steam, and to show the modes of working engines that have been found to be most advantageous.
No. 79. The Figure of the Earth. By Frank G. Roberts, C. E. Pp. 95. In this book the historical data in conncctton with the figure of the earth are presented, and the important mathematical principles for the deduction of it upon the spheroidal hy- pothesis arc arranged in a compact form.
No. 80. Healthy Foundations for Houses. By Glenn Brown. Pp. 143. This is a reprint of a serial paper published in the " Sanitary Engineer " during 1884, with fifty one illustrations from drawings made for the articles by the author.
Maps of the Dominion of Canada. Tele- graph and Signal Service. Sir Hector L. Langevin, Minister of Public Works. In sheets.
These maps are intended to be full, and are very handsomely executed. The group now under notice contains two sheets of the Eastern section, two of the West-Central section, two of the Western or Pacific coast section, with a Mercator chart of telegraphic lines and electric-cable connections through- out the world ; and a map on a spherical projection showing the world's submarine cables and principal telegraph lines.
Notes from the Physiological Laboratory OF the University of Pennsylvania. Edited by N. A. Randolph and Samuel G. Dixon. Philadelphia. Pp. 88.
A collection of '■ brief records of facts of interest brought to light in the course of physiological study." The constant aim of the writers has been to present these facts with the greatest conciseness compatible with scientific accuracy.
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��N. W. Ater k Son's Amkripan Newspiper Annual, 1886. riiiladclpliitt : N. W. Ayer ii. Son. Pp. 750. rricc, $3.
TiiK publishers have tukcn great pains to make lbi.s work complete and correct up to the day of f;"ing to press. It contains a fully descriptive list of newspapers and periodicals in the United States and Canada, arranged by States in geographical sections, and by towns in alphabetical order; another list, descriptive as to distinctive features and circulation, of newspapers inserting ad- vcrtiscmcnti', arranged in States by coun- ties ; a third list, of class and professional publications, and publications in foreign languages. From these lists may also be obtained other information about news- papers; and in connection with them there is given a dcsciiption, with statistical infor- mation, accounts of manufacturing enter- prises, and political notes, respecting each county. Finally, the book contains an al- phabetical list of cities, towns, and villages in the United States having a population of five thousand and upward.
IIow TO DRAIN A ITousE : Practical Informa- tion for Householders. By George E. Warino, Jr., M. Inst. C. E. New York : Henry Holt k Co. Pp. 222, with Twenty Illustrations. Price, $1.25.
Colonel Waring has given long and at- tentive study to the matter of house-drain- age, and as a result he has views of his own upon the subject which will be found stated in the present volume. Not by any means that the book has been written merely to promulgate his own notions ; it has been prepared because, in the autlior's opinion, it will prove the best and safest guide in a field of practice of vital importance, and still far from settled in its methods. The au- thor holds that there has been unquestiona- bly a steady improvement in recent years in dealing with the difficult problems of the disposal of household waste ; each step, how- ever imperfect in itself, being better than the condition of things which preceded it. Such, indeed, have been the progress made and the success achieved as greatly to strengthen the expectation that an ideally perfect sys- tem of house-drainage may soon become an accomplished and accepted fact. Meantime improvement is along various lines of trial, ' with a certain inevitable rivalship of views
��and devices. Ck)Ionel Waring docs not, how- ever, in the present volume attempt to give an account of the various ideas and contriv- ances, however excellent they may be, that have now come into use ; but having stud- ied them all, and had large experience of the subject, he has fixed upon his own meth- ods, and devotes his work to an exposition of them.
We have read the book carefully through, and have found it unusuully interesting and instructive. The preliminary remarks on house-drainage and health are impressive and decisive, and the explanation of prin- ciples and the description of plans and con- struction arc full, clear, and perfectly intel- ligible. The book abounds in common-sense suggestions, and is certain to prove valuable to all house-constructors and housekeepers who are seeking correct information upon the subject.
Ballooning : A Concise Sketch of it.s His- tory AND Principles. By G. May. New York : D. Van Nostrand. Pp. 96, with One Plate.
The author believes that, though practi- cal aerial navigation has so far been found unattainable, the pursuit of it has resulted in something, though it be little, to facili- tate art and scientific progress. In this work, besides reviewing the history of bal- looning, be seeks to ascertain and define the obstacles which interfere with its active progress, the mechanical means necessary to surmount them, and the natural power by which those means are to be put in op- eration ; and to point out certain regulations and restrictions by which they must be gov- erned in their apjilication.
The Lock -Jaw of Infants (Trismxts Kas- centium). Its Hi.^tory, Cause, Preven- tion, and Cure. By J. V. Hartigan. M. D. New York : Bermingham k Co. Pp. 123.
The di.seasc in question i:^ often fatal during the first month of infantile growth, but doctors have not been able to ascertain or agree upon its cause. The author main- tains a theory which was advanced by Dr. J. Marion Sims some thirty years ago, but never received attention — that it is occa- sioned by mechanical pressure of the occip- ital or parietal bones on the brain.
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��MALTnrs AND Ilia WoiiK. By Jamks Bonar.
Loniloii : Macmilluu & Co. I'p. 432.
No author is more talked about, when questions of political economy or social sci- ence are under consideration, than Malthus ; no dogma than what is called the Malthu- sian theory. But, according to the view of the author of this book, very few of those who have so much to say about the man and his doctrines know what they really are. " Malthus," he says, " was the best abused man of the age " ; and the temper and abundance of the abuse that has been launched against him " amount to a demon- stration " that his opponents are in the wrong, or that his logic is too sound for them. The points at issue were fully enough discussed in his own time between Malthus and his adversaries, "and no one who fairly considers the extent of the discussion, and the ability of the disputants, can fail to believe that we have, in the records of this controversy, ample materials for forming our own judgment on the whole question. . . . Such a privilege is seldom used. The world has no time to consult authorities, though it likes them to be within reach of consulta- tion. When an author becomes an authori- ty, he too often ceases to be read, and his doctrines, like current coin, arc worn by use till they lose the clear image and superscrip. tion of the issuer. In this way an author's name may come to suggest, not his own book, but the current version of his doc- trines," and this is seldom a wholly fair one. Such, Mr. Bonar seems to think, has been the case with Malthus ; and the pur- pose of the present volume is to give an ex- act account of his life, his teachings, and the object and character of his book.
Annual Report or tht. Board of Regents OF THE Smithsonian In.stitction for 18S.3. Washington: Government Print- ing-Office. Pp. 959.
This report contains much valuable in- formation concerning scientific work and progress in various departments in this and other countries. One of its excellent feat- ores is its running summaries of the prog- ress of investigations carried on by the members of Government surveys and expe- ditions, and by private persons in corre- spondence with the Institution, which cover
��a wide ground. A full account is given of the inauguration of the statue of Professor Henry, with the memorial address of Chief- Justice Waite, the oration of President Noah Porter, and a representation of the statue. Among the special papers arc the accounts of progress during the year in the several departments of science, and a num- ber of accounts of explorations of mounds and other anthropological work.
Cholera : its Origin, History, Causation, Symptoms, Lesions, Prevention, and Treatment. By Alfred Stille, M. D. Philadelphia : Lea Brothers & Co. Pp. 164.
The author has enjoyed the advantage of studying cholera in two epidemics, and has prepared this volume in view of the general newly awakened interest on the sub- ject and the agitation of Dr. Koch's germ theory. While declining to accept the doc- trine of Dr. Koch and his supporters as demonstrated, he seeks " to exhibit the spe- cific nature of cholera by evidence drawn from its origin and mode of propagation ; to disabuse the medical profession of the erroneous notion that the disease ever origi- nates de novo ; to maintain the necessity of quarantine, not in the literal but in the offi- cial sense of that word ; to point out the channels through which cholera may be dif- fused ; and to describe the measures which experience has sanctioned to prevent its dissemination and cure those who are at- tacked by it."
Silver-Lead Deposits of Eurfka, Nevada. By Joseph Story Curtis. Washington : Government Printing-Oflice. Pp. 200.
From the year 18C9 to 1883, Eureka district produced about $60,000,000 of gold and about 225,000 tons of lead. Owing to the fact that the deposits of this district have been more completely developed than any other of a similar character on the Pa- cific slope, they offer very full opportunities for the scientific investigation of formations of this class. The information on which this report is based was collected during field-work by the author in 1881 and 1682, and from the reports of Mr. George F. Beck- er's preliminary examination of the more important mines, and of Mr. Arnold Hague's survey of the geology of the district in 1880.
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��In tho present report, Mr. Curtis gives a clear and systematically ordered description of the district, its gcolojry, and the several mining locaiions, wiih their characteristic features. Among the topics particularly considered arc the surface geology, the struct- ure, and the ores of Prospect Mountain and Huby [lill, the ore deposits, the source and manner of deposition of the ores, the occur- rence of water in the mines, the methods of mining and timbering, and of working the ores, an accouat of Adams llill, and "the future of tho Eureka district." Wc arc pleased to observe that Mr. Curtis'a work in this field has elicited warm commendation and high testimonials to its value from for- eign experts : Ilcrr \'. Groddeck, Director of the Clausthal School of Mines, Austria, hav- ing studied the report " with the greatest interest," has expressed his appreciation of " the instruction and suggestions contained in it," and adds : " It is always wonderfully plca:fing to me to sec with what intensity and with what rich results your country pursues the study of ore deposits." Ilerr F. Posepny, Inspector of Mines for Austria, who has visited Eureka, and has drawn some interesting comparisons between its features and those of some of the Hunga- rian mines, characterizes this work as one which " is destined to play an important part in the technical literature of ore de- posits. When I glance over what I know from actual inspection, and what I know through the literature of the ore deposits of your country, I am more and more convinced that North America will be the coming school for the study of ore deposits." Herr Posepny adds that he is much interested in the results of Mr. Curtis's examination of country rock for minute quantities of met- als, as the subject has been taken up in his own country from a practical stand-point.
Memoirs of tok Natio.nal Acaoemy of Sci- KXCJa. Vol. II., 188.-5. \Va.shingtnn : Government Tiinting Office. Pp. 202.
The present volume contains four mem- oirs, of which the most voluminous is the full account of the eclipse of the sun, of May, 1883, and of the United States Expe- dition to Caroline Island, in the South Pa- cific Ocean, to view it. Included in this memoir arc several special papers of con-
��siderable general interest, among which are the narrative of the voyage to Caroline Island and return, the history and general descri[>tion of tlie island, various scientific and technical memoranda respecting it, its botany, zoology, and butterflies ; and par- ticular reports of eclipse observations by eleven associates of the expedition. The whole is attractively illustrated with maps and views of the island and its peculiar scenery, and representations of various features of the eclipse. The second mem- oir is Professor S. P. Langley's paper on the " Experimental Determination of Wave- lengths in the Invisible Prismatic Spec- trum " ; the third is by Professor William H. Brewer, " On the Subsidence of Particles in Liquids " ; and the fourth is the paper of Alexander Graham Bell " Upon the For- mation of a Deaf Variety of the Human Race," of which we have already given a brief abstract.
DiNOCERATA. (United States Geological Sur- vey, Vol. X.) By Othniel C. .Marsh, in ciiarge of the Division of Paleontology. Washington.
This monograph contains the full record of an extinct order of mammals, of which the author has made special studies. The only locality where remains of the Dinoccrata have been found is an Eocene lake-basin in Wyoming, and there his first discoveries were made by Professor Marsh in 1870. The specimens collected in this and suc- cessive expeditions are now in the museum at Yale College, and represent more than two hundred individuals of the Dinoccrata, besides the remains of many other verte- brata hitherto unknown. Seventy-five of these have portions of the skull preserved, and in more than twenty it is in good con- dition. Three genera have been established in this order : JJinoca-ns, JIarsh ; Tinocrraa, Marsh ; and Uintai/tcrium, Leidy. The skull of Dinoceras mirabilc is long and narrow ; it supports on the top three pairs of bony elevations or horn-cores, which form its most conspicuous feature, and suggested the name of the genus (5€i»'<^j, terrible, and Kt'pas, a horn). There are no upper incisors ; the canines in the male are enonnously de- veloped, forming sharp, trenchant, decurvcd tusks. The brain of the Dinoccrata is so-
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��THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.
��pecially remarkable for its diminutive size. From an extended eomparison of the brnin- cavitie3 of Tertiary mammals, Professor Marsh has found tliat there >«as a gradual increase in the higher portion of the brain durin,<; this period, and that the brain of a mammal litted for a long survival was pro- portionately larger than the average. The remains of Tinoccrax are found in the same lake-basin, but at a higher level, and the evidence is clear that it was a later and more specialized form, Tinoccras ingcns, as be stood in the flesh, was about six and a half feet in height to the top of the back, and about twelve feet long. His weight was probably at least six thousand pounds. Dinoccras mirabile was about one fifth smaller. In an appendix Professor Marsh gives a synopsis of Dinoccrata, in which all the known species of the order, about thirty, are recognized, and a bibliography follows the synopsis. With the aim of making the illustrations tell the main story to anato- mists, the author has incorporated in the volume fifty -six fine, large lithographic plates, and nearly two hundred original woodcuts, representing all the more im- portant specimens of the Dinoccrata now known, and including at least one figure of every species.
Paleostologt of the Eureka DisinicT. By Charles Doolittle Walcott. Wash- ington : Government Printing-OfEce. Pp. 298, with Twenty-four Plates.
In this report are presented the results of a careful survey of a district with a rich fauna, through thirty thousand feet of Palae- ozoic strata, representing the Cambrian, Si- lurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous rocks. It is regarded by Mr. Arnold Hague, geolo- gist in charge of the district survey, as " the most important contribution yet made to the invertebrate paleontology of the basin ranges, and of great value in its bearings upon the geology of the Cordilleras."
The Mantal of PHONoonAPHT. By Benn PiTMAS and Jerome B. Howard. Cin- cinnati : Phonographic Institute. Pp 144.
This is a revised edition of the " Man- ual " by Benn Pitman, the first edition of which appeared in 1855. While a number of new features appear in its pages which
��were not in its predecessor, the plan of pre- senting the system is essentially the same. Such changes and additions to the system, and such only, as are of real importance have been adopted.
Chemical Problems. By Dr. Karl Stam- MKR. Translated by W. S. Hoskixson. Philadelphia : P. Blakiston, Son & Co. Pp. 111. Price, 75 cents.
A LIST of questions on the properties of the elements, chemical phenomena, and manipulation, to be answered by the stu- dent through experiment or by calculation from what he knows. The answers are given in the latter part of the book.
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