Popular Science Monthly/Volume 33/August 1888/Literary Notices

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A History of Political Economy. By J. K. Ingram, LL.D. With preface by Prof. E. J. James, Ph.D. New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 15 + 250. Price, $1.50.

The author of this book is the writer of the article "Political Economy" in the latest edition of the "Encyclopædia Britannica," and the book is, for the most part, a reproduction of that Article. Prof. James, in his preface, characterizes the present treatise as "the first serious attempt by a properly qualified English writer to present a view of the progress of economic thought," and adds that it "will compare favorably with any work of similar compass in any other lan- guage." The book is designed to aid the mode of studying this science which is in- sisted on by the so-called "historical school" of political economists lately arisen. It aims to trace the successive economic doctrines of the past, in connection with the conditions of the time in which each one appeared. Passing quickly over the economic thought of ancient and mediosval times, the author en- ters upon the modern period, which he di- vides into three phases. In the first phase, or during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the "Catholico-feudal system" was breaking down, while a new order, the commercial, was rising beneath it. In the second phase, the collapse of the mediaeval social structure is followed by the advance of the central government, which, while promoting the growth of commerce, levies tribute upon it to obtain the necessary supplies for military operations. The conditions of this time give rise to the "mercantile school" of political economy. In the last phase—during the eighteenth century—a spirit of individualism arose, and the dogma of laisscr faire was re- ceived with general favor. This tendency, in the absence of the moral discipline partly established in the middle ages, led to the dom- ination of national selfishness and private cupidity. But the rising elements—science and industry—are bringing with them a dis- cipline more effective than the old, and the effort to press forward in the path which they point out gives the character to the period in which we live. The author then proceeds to indicate that the respective features of the second and third phases are reflected in the contemporary economic spec- ulation; those of the first, he says, can scarce- ly be said to find an echo in any literature of the time. He gives an exposition of the mercantile doctrine, with comments on each important economic treatise which appeared during the prevalence of the tendencies which formed the mercantile school. In treating the doctrine of the third modern phase, or the system of natural liberty, the author takes up first the economic writers of France, Italy, Spain, and Germany before Adam Smith, and follows these with an extended review of Smith's teachings. The later economists of England and the Continent next receive at- tention, and a few pages are devoted to those

of America. The rise of the historical school in the chief countries of Europe and in Amer- ica is then traced. In conclusion, the author says that political economy has been hereto- fore governed to its detriment by the meth- ods of metaphysics, and that its progress de- pends on the substitution of scientific meth- ods; that it must be studied in its relations with the science of sociology which includes it; and that the doctrine of right which lay at the basis of the system of "natural lib- erty" must be replaced by a new doctrine of duty regulating the co-operation of each class and member of the community.

Three Cruises of the United States Coast AND Geodetic Survey Steamer Blake, in the Gulf of Mexico, in the Caribbean Sea, and along the Atlantic Coast of the United States, from 1877 to 1880. By Alexander Agassiz. .Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. Two vols. Pp. 314 and 220. Price, $8.

The author styles this work "a contribu- tion to American Thalassography," meaning by that word the science which treats of ocean- ic basins. While we have had narratives of explorations with general summaries of re- sults and special treatises and papers on par- ticular points, which may altogether cover the whole subject, there has previously been no American work treating it comprehen- sively and systematically; although the fruits of English research have been embodied in the masterly books of Wyville Thomson and Wild. The expeditions of the Blake were by no means of minor importance among the enterprises for investigation of the deep seas. They covered a less extent of territory than the Challenger Expedition, but the region in which they operated is among the most interesting divisions of the ocean in the lessons which it affords con- cerning the relations of currents and tem- perature with the development and distribu- tion of organic life; and its well - defined limitation made a thorough and nearly ex- haustive survey all the more feasible. That the survey has been fruitful in results, in both the physical and biological departments, is attested by this careful and well-arranged presentation of the facts which were learned from it. Condensing the narrative into a very few pages, the author goes at once to the consideration of the immense variety of facts which the expeditions have added to knowledge, separating them according to their classes, and relating those of each class topically. Mr. Agassiz may call himself a veteran in thalassographic work, for his con- nection with it began in 1849, when, as a boy, he accompanied Prof. Agassiz in his cruise of the Bibb off Nantucket. He aft- erward, in 1851, served as the professor's aid in his survey of the Florida Reef. After- ward he reported upon a part of the collec- tions made by Pourtales in the Bibb in deep water in 1867-68. Since then he been al- most continuously engaged on deep-sea work. In the brief chapter in which is embodied the narrative of the expeditions are given some observations, with pertinent illustra- tions, on the physiognomy and structure of the smaller West India Islands. In the first volume, after a full account of the equip- ment of the Blake for its work, including Sigsbee's improvement in sounding-appara- tus, and a "Historical Sketch of Deep-Sea Work," the characteristic features are gen- eral discussions of the fundamental facts and principles ascertained in the research. The chapter on "The Florida Reefs" em- bodies a study of the manner in which the peninsula of Florida and its hemming reefs originated and have come to their present condition—in which Darwin's theory of cor- al reefs is found not to apply. Next is con- sidered the "Topography of the Eastern Coast of the North American Continent," of which only the most general features were known before the explorations of the Blake. The further presentation of the general prin- ciples comprises the discussion of such top- ics as the "Relations of the American and West Indian Fauna and Flora"; "The Per- manence of Continents and of Oceanic Ba- sins"; "Deep - Sea Formations"; "The Deep - Sea Fauna"; "The Pelagic Fauna and Flora"; "Temperatures of the Carib- bean, Gulf of Mexico, and Western Atlan- tic"; "The Gulf Stream"; "Submarine Deposits"; and the "Physiology of Deep- Sea Life." All these papers are of great physiographical importance, and present at considerable length and in detail the re- sults obtained by the Blake expeditions, supplemented by those derrived from the Challenger and other investigations. The second volume is occupied with fuller and VOL. xxxiii.—36 specific descriptions of the various forms of deep-sea life obtained by the surveys and dredgings, beginning with a summary re- view of the "West Indian Fauna," and con- tinued with chapters, illustrated by original figures, either prepared for this work or bor- rowed from the office of the Coast Survey, on "The Fishes," "Crustacea," "Worms," "Mollusks," "Echinoderms," "Acalephs," "Polyps, " "Rhizopods," and "Sponges." The essentials to every good book, a list of figures and an index, are not forgotten, but are given in a full and satsfactory style.

American Fishes. By G. Brown Goode. Il- lustrated. New York: Standard Book Co. Pp. 496. Price, $5.

The rule which has guided Prof. Goode in selecting, from the 1,750 species indige- nous to our waters, the fishes to be described in this book, is to include "every North American fish which is likely to be of inter- est to the general reader, either because of its gameness or its economic uses." The. author gives the physical features of each, fish, tells its range and season, its habits in regard to feeding, migration, and breeding,, with something about methods of capture,, and value as food. Mingled with these facts is much curious information about the differ- ent names of fish in different places, many exciting fishing adventures, and appropriate quotations in prose and verse from Izaak Walton and other writers, both old and re- cent. "This volume has been prepared," says Prof. Goode, in his prologue,, "for the use of the angler, the lover of nature, and the general reader. It is not intended for naturalists, and the technicalities of zoologi- cal description have therefore been avoided. . . . . A figure of almost every species dis- cussed is presented, by the aid of which any one interested in fishes can determine the correct zoological name of the form before him." To prevent a possible mistake as to the scope of the work it may be well to re- peat the author's caution that it contains "no discussions of rods, reels, lines, hooks, and flies, and no instructions concerning camping out, excursions, routes, guides, and hotels." The field occupied, however, is wide enough to make the book interesting to a large circle of readers, and its reliability may be inferred from the author's intimate acquaintance with the subject, which made him the fii'st choice as successor to Prof. Baird in the office of Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries. Uis own work, too, has been supplemented by that of the late Commis- sioner, and of Dr. Jordan, Dr. Bean, Capt. Collins, Mr. Earll, and Mr. Stearns. The classification followed is the system elabo- rated and advocated by Dr. Gill.

The Story of Creation: A Plain Account OF Evolution. By Edward Clodd. Illus- trated. Loudon and New York: Long- mans, Green & Co. Pp. 2-12. Price, $1.'75.

The purpose of this book is to give a view of the doctrine of evolution throughout the realm of Nature, and of the kind of evi- dence which supports it. The book is di- vided into two parts—descriptive and ex- planatory. In the former, the relations of matter and power in the universe, and the chief features of the solar system are touched upon, while the past life - history of the earth and an account of the present life- forms are given more at length. In the ex- planatory part, much the same order is fol- lowed. Beginning with the universe, the ac- cepted theory of its becoming and growth is stated; then follows a discussion of the ori- gin of hfe, after which the question of the origin of species is taken up, and the proofs of the derivation of species are given. Fi- nally, the author enters the field of social evolution, and shows the application of the doctrine to psychology, society, language, art, science, morals, and theology. He in- sists on a distinction between morals and theology, but does not Join issue in the vexed question of the relations of science and re- ligion. The style of the text is popular and picturesque, and the volume is abundantly illustrated.

Thk Geological Evidences of Evolution. By Prof. Angelo Heilprin. Illustrated. Philadelphia: The Author. Pp. 99.

In this brief sketch, which is extended from a discourse delivered at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Prof. Heilprin presents a popular view of some of the evidences in support of organic transmu- tation afforded by geology and paleontology. He shows first that in geologic time "there has been a steady advance in the type of

structural organization from first to last—not a necessary elimination of forms of low de- gree, but an overbalancing of these by forms of a more complicated or higher grade of structure." He then traces back the history of several groups of animals, showing that by gradual modification they are derived from ancestral forms which are connected also with other and very dissimilar modern groups. In the greater part of this discus- sion, data drawn from the vertebrate ani- mals are used, but the author adds, in clos- ing, a few cases drawn from the mollusks, which present equally striking proofs of modification. The book is exceedingly well adapted to promote a general intelligent be- lief in the doctrine of evolution.

In Nesting Time. By Olive Thorne Mil- ler. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co, Pp. 275. Price, $1.25.

This volume belongs to a class which is happily becoming more common than for- merly, namely, accounts of observations of nature. The habits and actions of birds, both free and in confinement, form the sub- ject of the book, and the modest introductory note claims for the sketches only that they are genuine studies from life, not that the facts are all new to science. The glimpses at bird-life which the author gives have a freshness and sprightliness that make them intensely fascinating reading, while they have also an instructive value due to their revela- tions of bird habits and character.

A treatise on The Fundamental Princi- ples of Chemistry has been written by Prof. Robert Galloway^ of London (Longmans), which differs widely from the common text- books on chemistry. The author holds that the ordinary chemical works intended for beginners follow too much the cyclopaedic plan of great reference books, and he quotes Prof. J. P. Cooke as saying of such works: "To the great mass of learners the study of these text-books is uninteresting and profit- less, for before the student is made familiar through long laboratory practice with the materials and processes described, such a book is little more to him than a catalogue of names, to which he attaches no signifi- cance." The present volume is more like Prof. Cooke's "New Chemistry" than any other chemistry with which American teach- ers are acquainted. It is a presentation of principles without much descriptive matter. The first part of the hook is devoted to physical properties and forces, merging into chemical physics, which prepares the way for the course on pure chemistry that fol- lows. "In the teaching of this portion of the work," says the author, "the exercises, illustrations, etc., have been selected to bear on the after-course and on chemical opera- tions generally. Thus, in explaining porosi- ty, filtration is illustrated and taught practi- cally; the collecting and storing of gases, under impenetrability; the determination of boiling-points, fractional distillation, etc., under heat; the action of charcoal and dye- ing, under adhesion, etc.; so that when the purely chemical portion of the work is reached the student will not be perplexed and im- peded when reference has to be made to physical properties and physical forces. The principles are taught by experimental and arithmetical exercises and examination ques- tions. Answers to many of the exercises are ■given at the end of the work." The book is suitable for students in colleges and high- schools. It is strange to see a work of this character without an index.

TJie Lackawanna Institute of Historij and Science has issued a first volume of its Pro- ceedings and Collections. This society was organized in the winter of 1885-86 at Scran- ton, Pa., for the promotion and diffusion of historic and scientific knowledge, especially that relating to the vicinity. The locality affords an exceptional amount of material for scientific study, for in addition to its fauna, flora, and minerals, it has the coal- measures with their wealth of fossils, and it lies within the area traversed by the ice of the glacial epoch. The present volume con- tains a lecture on "Glaciation: its Relations to the Lackawanna- Wyoming Region," de- livered before the institute by John C. Brau- ner. Professor of Geology in the University of Indiana, and "A Preliminary List of the Vascular Plants of the Lackawanna and Wyoming Valleys," compiled by William R. Dudley, of Cornell University. Following these are the proceedings and by-laws of the society.

Lessons in Geometry is a small text-book by G, A. Hill (Ginn, 70 cents), prepared for

those who desire a short and easy introduc- tory course in geometry, adapted to pupils between the ages of twelve and sixteen. In these lessons large use is made of exer- cises in drawing to scale. The training in consecutive reasoning is introduced very gradually, and is confined mainly to the laws of equal triangles and a few of their simple applications. As here presented, geometry is intended to be studied before algebra. The contents of the book may form a course for two years or may be abridged so as to be covered in one year.

The first number of Science and PJio- tography (Jas. W. Queen & Co., Philadel- phia, $1 a year) has come to hand. It com- prises articles bearing on various points in the practice of photography and a few papers on other scientific matters.

The Annual Report of the State Geologist of New Jersey for 1887 {G. H. Cook, State Geologist, New Brunswick) is only a busi- ness statement of the affairs of the survey, the near completion of the work making it unadvisable to go into detail as fully as has been the case in former annual reports. The first part of the final report may be expected in a short time. It will be upon the phys- ical geography of New Jersey, and will em- body in its texts the results of the geodetic, topographic, and magnetic surveys. The main work of the year was given to the com- pletion of the topographical survey and maps of the State. Some field work was done in the exploration and study of the archsean rocks in Sussex County, examinations were made of the glacial and terrace deposits of the Delaware above the Water Gap, a care- ful and detailed survey was made of the zinc-mines of Franklin Furnace for the pur- pose of making a model of the vein, and at- tention was given to the questions of water- supply and drainage. A fine topographical map of the State by C. C. Vermeule accom- panies the present volume. The survey and its documents are attracting increasing at- tention from citizens of the State.

TJie Fifteenth Annual Report on the Geo- logical and Natural History Survey of Min- nesota, by Prof. N. H. Winchell (Minneapo- lis, Minn.), has been issued. It covers the year 1886 and comprises a report by Prof. A. Winchell on the work of the party under his charge, a report by Prof. N. H. Winchell largely taken up with the geology of the iion-bearing rocks of northern Minnesota, and several brief papers. The volume is illustrated with geological maps and many structural figures.

Dr. M. E. Wadsworlh was in charge of a surveying party during a part of the sum- mer of 1886, but devoted the rest of the sea- son to laboratory work, the result of which is published as Bulletin No. 2 of the Minne- sota survey, entitled Preliminary Description of the Peridotyles^ Gabbros, Diabases, and Andcsyles of Minnesota. The paper com- prises general descriptions of the Minnesota rocks belonging to these groups, with a great many special descriptions of specimens col- lected in the northern part of the State.

Bulletin No. 4 of the survey is a Synop- sis of the Aphididce of Minnesota, prepared by 0. W. Oestlund, A general description of the Aphididce and a bibliography of the family are prefixed to the synopsis, and a list of North American plants with the names of species known to attack them is appended. The species of plant-lice treated in this paper were mostly collected along the Mississippi River; but the author has also added notes from other localities, so that he considers the report as applying to the whole State, except the pine district in the northern part.

A quarterly journal called The Clima- tologist began life with the number for Janu- ary (P. 0. Box 274, Washington; 50 cents a year). Its chief object will be to present in- formation as to the climatic conditions of various regions and resorts with especial re- gard to their influence on the preservation of health and the cure of disease. Various sanitary subjects will also come within its scope.

The instructors, pupils, and friends of Adam Todd £)~uce, Ph. D., have issued a quarto memorial volume containing his the- sis entitled Observations on the Embryology of Insects and Arachnids, written for his ex- amination for the degree of Ph. D. Prefixed to the thesis is a sketch of the scientific work of Dr. Bruce by Prof. W. K. Brooks. This young biologist graduated from the Univer- sity of New Jersey in 1881. He obtained the degree of Ph. D. at the Johns Hopkins University in June, 1886, and was appointed an instructor there in September following. He died in March, 1887. The volume con-

tains six plates illustrating the thesis and a portrait of the author.

Inebriety: its Etiology, Pathology, Treat- ment, and Jurisprudence, by Norman Kerr, a physician, whose titles and offices indicate that he is an expert in the study of the sub- ject (Philadelphia, P. Blakiston, Son & Co.), has been prepared in response to numer- ous inquiries which have been addressed to the author regarding the best course to be adopted in dealing with the inebriate. The one common feature of most of these in- quiries "has been the non-recognition of a disease element in inebriety, and the ac- knowledgment of only a moral depravity." Dr. Kerr takes an opposite view, and holds, with Dr. Crothers, of Hartford, that ine- briety is a disease, in the face of which the victim is helpless, and that it can be cured only by suitable medical treatment and regimen. In elaboration of this view, he has prepared the present full, methodical treatise on the subject in all its aspects, illustrated with copious citations from his own and other professional experience and observation. The disease inebriety having been described as allied to insanity, five chapters are given to the consideration of its various forms; four to its etiology, with special stud'es of its predisposing and its exciting causes; two to its pathology; five to its treatment, which, as the disease is a complex one, is necessarily intricate, and is most successful in special homes where the surroundings can all be made favorable; and five to its medico-legal aspects. Under the last heading it is very evident that the le- gal treatment upon the theory that inebriety is a disease must be quite different from the present system, which regards it as a vice.

llie Journal of Physiology (Cambridge Scientific Instrument Co., England) presents in No. 1 of Vol. IX three papers, with notes of proceedings. The first paper, by C. A. MacMunn, is "On the Chromatology of some British Sponges," and consists of examina- tions of the coloring matters in twelve species of sponge from Tenby. In ten of them ho found chlorophyll, differing in no respect worth mentioning from vegetable chloro- phyll; he also found lipochromes in nearly all, and a histoh^matin in seven. As to what use chlorophyll is to sponges. Dr. MacMunn suggests that it may sift out light- rays of a certain wave-length to be utilized in the synthesis of the carbohydrates, etc. The second paper is by G. N. Stewart, and deals with "The Effect of Stimulation on the Polarization of Nerve," and the third is by W. Griffiths, "On the Rhythm of Mus- cular Response to Volitional Impulses in Man." The third paper presents compari- sons of myograms taken from voluntarily contracting muscles, and the conclusions ob- tained with different muscles, different per- sons, different weights, different times of contraction, etc.

The second number of the Journal of Morpholorjy (Ginn) contains five papers, viz.: "Ookinesis," by C. 0. Whitman; "The Embryology of Petromyzon," by Dr. W. Ct Scott; "A Contribution to the Embryology of the Lizard," by Dr. Henry Orr; "The Foetal Membranes of the Marsupials," by Dr. II. F. Osborn; and "Some Observations on the Mental Powers of Spiders," by George W. and Elizabeth G. Peckham. The papers are illustrated with ten plates and several diagrams.

The first part of Professor W. Preyer^s observations upon the development of The Mind of the Child, which relates to the senses and the will, has been translated for D. Appleton & Co.'s International Education Series, by H. W. Brown, of the State Nor- mal School, at Worcester, Mass., an institu- tion in which the students are taught them- selves systematically to make and record observations upon the children whom they meet or come in contact with. The impor- tance of the subject to teachers hardly needs enlarging upon; for it is obviously one of the most essential qualifications they should possess for their work that they should be acquainted with the nature of the object which they are to operate upon, whose con- tinued development they are to aid. Of all the series of observations that have been recorded on the mind of the child, those of Professor Preyer have been probably the most thorough and systematic, and are de- scribed in the most lucid manner. He kept a complete diary of all childish acts and the acquisition of new powers from the birth of his son to the end of his third year; occupied himself with him at least three times a day, guarding him, as far as

possible, against such training as children usually receive, and found nearly every day some fact of mental genesis to record. The substance of that diary has passed into this book. The record is enriched by notes of observations on other children and contribu- tions from other persons. The whole forms a valuable foundation on which teachers may base their own individual studies, and a guide for the right c6nducting of them.

A paper on European Schools of History and Politics, read by Mr. Andrew D. White at the Johns Hopkins University in 18*79, has been revised, and is published in the "Studies," edited by Prof. H. B. Adams. Al- though the editor puts only Mr. White's name on the title-page of the pamphlet, and runs the title of his paper as a heading over all the pages, scarcely half of the pamphlet is occupied by Mr. White's paper. The other contributions are "Modern History at Ox- ford," by W. J. Ashley; "Recent Impres- sions of the Ecole Libre," by T. K. Wor- thington; and "Preparation for the Civil Service in German States," by L. Katzen- stein, with a "List of Books upon the Ger- man Civil Service." Mr. White gives" an account of the recent growth of the depart- ment of history and politics at some of the centers of European instruction, and then applies this European experience in discuss- ing the need in our own country for men trained in these subjects.

In Mary F. Hyde's Practical Lessons in the Use of English, book two (D. C. Heath & Co.), the sound plan adopted in the former volume, of bringing only correct forms to the attention of the pupil, is adhered to. The exercises are a step more advanced in character than those of the former book, and are illustrated by selections from the works of Longfellow, Whitticr, and Lucy Larcom. The aim observed throughout the work has been to lead the pupil to see for himself, to cultivate the powers of observa- tion at every step; and, instead of discuss- ing why certain forms are right and others wrong, to train him habitually to use the right expression.

D. C. Heath & Co. have added a second part of Mrs. Julia McNair WrighVs Seaside and Wayside to the series of Nature Readers. It is substantially a continuation of the plan developed in the first part, and describes a walk with the child-pupil by the sea-shore and along the road, with easy conversations concerning the nature, habits, life-history, etc., of the living creatures which the pair meet. These living creatures in the present volume are ants, earthworms, flies, beetles, barnacles, jelly-fish, starfish, and dragon- flies. The purpose is to lead the child by pleasant steps to the study of nature, and interest him in it. The talks are fitly illus- trated.

The Report of the New York State Super- intendent of Public Instruction for the year ending August, 1887, has been issued. The view of the condition of public education in the State, given by the Hon. A. S. Draper, the superintendent, is not characterized by that unalloyed complacency which pervades the generality of educational reports, but is a vigorous statement of what the schools of the State need for their further advance- ment. Among the special work of the year which he reports are the preparation of a new "Code of Public Instruction," the ob- taining of a series of designs for school- houses, and an investigation in regard to compulsory education in other States and countries, made by Sherman Williams. The report on this investigation is printed with the superintendent's report. The usual sta- tistics are given in the exhibits appended to the report.

The second "Monograph" of the Indus- trial Education Association (New York) is a brief paper on Education in Bavaria, by Sir Philip Magnus. It describes each kind of school maintained in that kingdom, and gives other general information on the organiza- tion of the Bavarian educational system.

No. 2 of Tlie American Journal of Psy- chology, edited by Prof. G. Stanley Hall (N. Murray, $3 a year) contains an article on "The Relation of Neurology to Psychology," by Henry H. Donaldson, Ph. D., in which he summarizes certain recent advances in neu- rology, with a view to indicating what the field is and what some of the results are. There is also an article on "Insistent and Fixed Ideas," by Edward Cowles, M. D., which is illustrated by a detailed history of a complicated case of mental derangement. A paper by Joseph Jastrow, Ph. D., enti- tled "A Critique of Psycho-Physic Methods" deals with the methods and interpretation

of such psycho-physic experiments as can be utilized for establishirg Weber's law.

The Heart of the Creeds, or Historical Peligion in the Light of Modern Thought, by Arthur Weniivorth Eaton (G. P. Put- nam's Sons), is an attempt to make clear the universal meaning in the rites and symbols of Christian faith, and to aid the believer in discriminating between what is necessary and what is accidental in religion. It is written from the orthodox point of view, and predominantly from that of the Protestant Episcopal Church. In this sense are consid- ered the topics of "God," "Man," "Christ," "The Creeds," "The Bible," "The Church," "The Sacraments," "The Liturgy," and "The Future Life," each article being pre- ceded, as in a sense of foretaste of what is to come, by a selection of terse expressions of thought on the subject by representative Christian writers of all ages,

G. P. Putnam's Sons have added to their series of "English History by Contemporary Writers," of which we have already noticed the first two volumes, Simon of Montfort and his Cause, by the Rev. J. Hutton, and SlrongbovPs Conquest of Ireland, by Prancis Pierrepont Barnard. The former volume is made up chiefly of selections from the writ- ings of Robert of Gloucester, Matthew Paris, and other contemporary chroniclers, and the latter from the works of Gerald of Barri and several other documents, including the An- glo-Norman poem on the conquest known as "Regan." This series is under the general editorial direction of Mr. F. York Powell, and aims at so setting forth the facts of English national history from contemporary documents, letters, and papers of all sorts, as to send the reader to the best original au- thorities, and at the same time to give a liv- ing picture of the effect produced upon each generation by the political, religious, social, and intellectual movements in which it took part, and thus to bring him as close as may be to the mind and feelings of the times he is reading about.

A work on finance, by Dr. Luigi Cossa, has been translated, and appears under the title Taxation: its Principles and Alethods (Putnam, $1), with an introduction and notes by Horace White. It is essentially a volume of definitions and classifications, enumerating in short paragraphs the kinds of public ex- penditure, the sources of public income, the forms of property on which taxes are laid, the varieties of public debt, and the ways of managing it. There is little discussion of policies in the body of the book, though the chief reasons for and against certain finan- cial methods are briefly stated. Mr. White has, however, inserted discussions on taxa- tion of mortgages, of personal property, of corporations, of land values, and taxation on consumption. Prof. Cossa's bibliography of the science of the finances is reproduced with additions, and compilations of the tax systems of New York and Pennsylvania are appended.

Tlie Modern Bistrihutive Process, by John B. Clark and Franklin H. Giddings, is composed of four articles, two by each au- thor, contributed to the "Political Science Quarterly." The titles of the papers are "The Limits of Competition," "The Persist- ence of Competition," Profits under Modern Conditions," and "The Natural Rate of Wages." They are studies of the new con- ditions of the distribution of wealth resulting from the interference with competition caused by pools, trusts, labor unions, etc., and aim to show how much of the Ricardiau theory of distribution persists in this new stage of economic evolution.

A fourth edition (revised) of Constiiu- iional History and Political Development of the United States, by Siino7i Sterne (Putnam, $1.25), has just appeared. It is a popular work, consisting of " a sketch of the Consti- tution of the United States as it stands in text, and as it is interpreted by the Supreme Court, accompanied by a history of the po- litical controversies which resulted in the formation of and changes in that instrument, together with the presentation of the actual situation of political parties and questions, which, in their turn, may produce constitu- tional changes." In the new edition, part of the book has been rewritten, and addenda have been supplied bringing the constitu- tional history and political changes of the nation from 1882 down to the end of 1887.

There are many persons who will be en- abled to transact their business more secure- ly by means of Hints from a Lawyer, a little manual by Edgar A. Spencer (Putnam, $1.25). Its object is to present the laws

��and methods relating to the care of property, the investment of money, the distribution of estates, and to marriage and divorce. It aims also to instruct the reader as to when the lawyer's counsel should be sought, and how such counsel can be best utilized. A large part of the text is in the form of ques- tions such as a client would ask a lawyer, with the appropriate answers. It is adapted to all the States.


Association for Moral and Spiritual Instructioa. Second Unitarian Church, Brooklyn. Pp. 16.

Baltimore Manual Training School. Fourth An- nual Catalogue. Pp. 59.

Bellamy, Edward. Looking Backward. Bos- ton : Ticknor & Co. Pp. 4T0. 50 cents.

Bell, W. 8. The French Revolution. New York : Truth-Seeker Company. Pp.81. 25 cents.

Buchner. Dr. Louis. Materialism. New York: Truth-Seeker Company. Pp. 28.

Clark, Dr. Daniel. The Public and the Doctor in Relation to the Dipsomaniac. Toronto, Canada. Pp. 20.

Cooper Union. Twenty-ninth Annual Report of the Trustees. Pp. 64.

Cornell University. Bulletin of the Agricultural Experiment Station. Pp. 8.

Davis, J. R. A. A Text- Book of Biology. Phila- delphia : P. Blakiston, Son & Co. Pp. 462. $4.

Denslow, Van Buren. Principles of the Eco- nomic Philosophy of Society, Government, aLd Industry. Cassell & Co. Pp. 7S2. $3.50.

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Fellows, G. 8. "Lolsette" Exposed. New York : G. 8. Fellows & Co. Pp. 224. 25 cents.

Foster, Rev. John O. Life Sketches and Speeches of Gen. Clinton B. Fisk. Chicago: Woman's Tem- perance Publication Association. Pp. 108, with portrait. 25 cents.

Giddings, Franklin H., Springfield, Mass. The Sociological Character of Political Economy. Pp. 19.

Gilbert, C. K. Changes of Level of the Great Lakes. Pp. 12.

Gould, 3. C, Manchester, N. H. Bibliography of the Polemic Problem, What is the Value of jr? Pp. 82.

Grabfleld, J. P., and Burns, P. S. Chemical Problems. Boston : D. C. Heath & Co. Pp. 87.

Guernsey, Alice M. Programme for an Entertain- ment in Behalf of the Tempei-ance Temple. Chi- cago : Woman's Temperance Publication Associ- ation. Pp. 24.

Harkness, William. The Progress of Science as exemplified in the Art of Weighing and Measuring. Washington : U. S. Naval Observatory. Pp. 48.

Hemiup, Maria Remington, Geneva, N. Y. Law of Heat. Pp. 120.

Henry, M. Charles. Sur divers Points d'Histolre des Math^matiques (On Various Points of the His- tory of Mathematics.) Rome. Pp. 17.

Hill. David J. The Soci.al Influence of Christian- ity. Boston : Silver, Burdett & Co. Pp 231. $1.25.

Holden, Edward 8. Hand-Book of the Lick Observatory. San Francisco : The Bancroft Com- pany. Pp. 135.

Hopkins, H. R., M. D., Buffalo. The Relations of Mind and Body. Pp. 7.

Hydrographic Oflice, Navy Department. Pilot- Chart of the North Atlantic Ocean for June. Sheet. Industrial Educational Association, New York. Reports, 1888. Pp. 24.

Ingersoll, Col. R. G. The Stage and the Pulpit. New York: The Truth-Seeker Company. Pp. 12.

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Nebraska, University of. Catalogue and Register, 1887-'88 Pp. 112.

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Philosophical Society of Washington. Bulletin. Vols. IX, X. Smithsonian Edition. Vol. X. Society's Edition.

Pickering, Edward C. Second Annual Report on Photographic Study of Stellar Spectra. Pp. 8, with 2 Plates.

Quick, M. W., Titusville, Pa. Modem Speculation. Pp. 84.

Ripley, Chauncey, University of New York, Law Department. Address on Presentation of Memorial Portrait of John N. Pomeroy, etc. Pp. 25.

Starr, Dr. Elmer, Buffalo, N. Y. Photographing the Interior of the Living Human Eye. Pp. 5.

Stockham, G. H., M.D., Oakland, Cal. Temperance and Prohibition. Pp. 131. $1.

Todd, J. E. Directive Coloration in Animals. Pp. 7.

University of Illinois. Agricultural Experimental Station. Bulletin No. 1. May, 1888. Pp. 13.

Washburn, L. K. Religious Problems. New York: The Truth-Seeker Company. Pp. 23.

Wolff, Alfred R. Efficiency of Mechanical Engineering Schools. Pp. 7.

Wright. G. Frederick. The Age of the Ohio Gravel Beds. Pp. 9.

Wright, Rev. T. F. The Realities of Heaven. Philadelphia: William H. Alden. Pp. 120.

Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania. Thirty-ninth Annual Announcement. Pp. 24.

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